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Fund
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2010-02-21 14:08:06
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Fundamentals of Nursing
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  1. BMI catagories
    • <18.5 = underweight
    • 18.5 - 25 = healthy weight
    • >25 - 29.9 = overweight
    • > 30 = obese
    • > 40 = morbidly obese
  2. BMI calculations
    lbs / (in)(in) * 703 = BMI (*100)
  3. Parenteral nutrition
    through IV
  4. Enteral nutrition
    NG tube, G tube, J tube, peg tube
  5. What to do for hypovolemia:
    increase fluid intake to 2,000 ml/day
  6. Diffusion
  7. Osmosis
  8. Active transport
  9. How do you assess fluid volume for a pt who has recovered from dehydration
    Checking daily weight
  10. Solution used for a blood transfusion
    blood transfulsion cannot be given with anything but normal saline
  11. Hypotonic solution
  12. Isotonic solution
  13. Hypertonic solution
  14. Stomach Ph
  15. Intestine Ph
  16. Lungs Ph
  17. System which regluates producion of carbonic acid
    Respiratory, (CO2 concidered acid when too much)
  18. System which regulates bicarbonate, HCO3-
    Renal
  19. ABG values
  20. High sodium foods
    tomato soup, pickles, ham, soda, canned fruit, anything canned or preserved
  21. High potassium foods
    bananas, potatoes
  22. High calcium foods
    dairy products
  23. IV fluid therapy: solution which provides no fluid shift
    Isotonic
  24. Clear liquid diet
    anything that can be seen through (jello, clear juice or soda)
  25. Full liquid diet
    milk, custard/pudding, icecream
  26. Pureed diet
    mashed potatoes, mac and cheese
  27. Why do you flush an NG tube?
    flush with 30ml to prevent clogging
  28. Dehiscence
  29. Evisceration
  30. Applying heat:
    improves blood flow, blood carries oxygen to site
  31. Applying ice:
    constricts vessels (stops clotting, inflammation, edema)
  32. TPN
  33. PPN
  34. Why must TPN be given continuously, and not stopped abruptly?
    Has electrolytes, one of the main electrolytes is sugar, stopping abruptly can cause hypoglycemia, must maintain consistant rate
  35. How often must bag and tubing be changed for TPN
    daily
  36. If giving lipids via with TPN for calories, what must be monitored?
    lipid levels
  37. What must be monitored with TPN?
    glucose levels
  38. What must be done when D/C TPN?
    taper off
  39. Electrolyte levels
  40. Ph
  41. CO2
  42. Bicarbonate
  43. Calcium
  44. What is the purpose for giving hypotonic solution?
    purposely given to shift water to the cell for cellular hydration
  45. What is the purpose for giving hypertonic solution?
    purposely given w/ increased amout of solutes in the solution, which shifts fluid out of cell
  46. Pain scales
  47. Pain receptors
  48. ICF
    intracellular fluid
  49. ECF
    interstitial fluid and plasma (extracellular fluid)
  50. Isotonic solution
    normal, equal balance, no fluid shift occurs across cellular or vascular membranes
  51. Types of IV fluids (isotonic)
    • normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride)
    • lactated ringer's (LR) solution
    • 5% dextrose in water (D5W)
  52. Hypertonic solution
    high concentration, pulls fluid from low to high concentration, pulls fluid from cells and interstitial spaces into vasculature/blood vessels, causes a shift, pulls fluid from inside of cell to outside causing cell to shrink, for cellular over-hydration
  53. Types of IV Fluids, hypertonic
    above 9%

    • 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl (D5 1/2 NS)
    • 10% dextrose in water (D10W)
    • 5% dextrose in 0.9% NaCl (D5NS)
  54. Hypotonic solution
    less concentration, causes fluid to leave vasculature/blood vessels to shift into the cells, causing cellular hydration, give to move water into cell
  55. Types of IV fluids, hypotonic
    Below 0.9%

    • 0.33% NaCl (1/3 strength saline)
    • 0.45% NaCl (1/2 strength saline)
  56. Colloids
    IV fluids that contain solutes in the form of large proteins or other similarly sized molecules
  57. Purpose of colloids
    remain in blood vessels for long time, increasing volume of blood, pulling water from cells into blood vessels
  58. Colloids examples of therapy
    albumin, dextran, hetastarch
  59. Crystalloid
    contains electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride), but lacks large proteins and molecules found in colloids
  60. Purpose of giving crystalloid
    effect of fluid depends on if it is isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic
  61. Examples of crystalloid therapy
    normal saline, dextrose fluid, lactaded ringer
  62. Normal PH level
    7.35 - 7.45

    • below 7.35 = acidosis
    • above 7.45 = alkalosis
  63. HCO3- shows
    metabolic (kidneys)
  64. Bicarbonate levels
    22 - 26

    • below 22 = acidosis
    • above 26 = alkalosis
  65. CO2 shows
    Respiratory (lungs)
  66. Normal CO2 range
    35 - 45

    • <35 = alkalosis
    • >45 = acidosis

    (opposite pH, and metabolic)
  67. ABG

    Ph = 7.30
    HCO3 = 24
    CO2 = 51
    Respiratory Acidosis
  68. ABG

    Ph = 7.35
    HCO3 = 26
    CO2 = 38
    Normal
  69. PH = 7.51
    HCO3 = 25
    CO2 = 29
    Respiratory Alkalosis

    (blowing off too much CO2, example: during labor and delivery)
  70. What event brings on respiratory acidosis?
    Cardiopulmonary arrest

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