Chapter 17

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Author:
krys
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75660
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Chapter 17
Updated:
2011-03-28 14:07:00
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Anatomy
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Chapter 17
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  1. visceral effectors
    smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle
  2. 2 motor neurons in ANS
    • Preganglionic neuron - in the CNS, myelinated axon
    • Ganglionic neuron - peripheral ganglion outside CNS, unmyelinated postganglionc axon
  3. Arrangement of neurons
    Preganglionic neuron's axon innervates ganglonic neuron outside CNS
  4. 2 subdivisions of ANS with opposite effects
    • Sympathetic - excitation, fright or fight
    • Parasympathetic - inhibition , rest and digest
  5. Origin sites
    • Parasympathetic - brain & sacral spinal cord
    • Sympathetic - thoracolumbar spinal cord
  6. Length of fibers
    Parasympathetic - long preganglionic, short postganglionic

    Sympathetic - short pre, long post
  7. Location of ganglia
    • Parasympathetic - near/in visceral effectors
    • Sympathetic - near spinal cord
  8. Neurotramsmitters
    • 1. All preganglionic fibers - Acetylcholine Ach (stimulae)
    • 2. Postganglionic parasympathetic - Ach (stimulate or inhibit)
    • Postganglionic sympathetic - Norepinephrine NE (stimulate)
  9. Parasympathetic division
    • 1. Preganglionic fibers run in oculomotor, facial, glossopharygeal, vagus nerves
    • 2. Innervates structures in head, organs in thoraic and abdominalpelvic cavity
    • 3. effects - specific, localized, only last a few seconds, conserve energy
  10. Functions of Parasympathetic division
    • Relaxation, energy absorption, food processing
    • e.g. Person relaxing after a meal
  11. General increase in nutrient content of blood
    (fun: of parasympathetic system)
    • 1. Constriction of pupils
    • 2. Secretion by digestive glands
    • 3. Secretion of hormones that promote nutrient absorption
    • 4. smooth muscle activity along digestive tract
    • 5. stimulation and coordination of defecation
    • 6. contraction of urinary bladder (urination)
    • 7. reduction of heart rate and force of contraction
    • 8. sexual arousal and stimulation of sex glands
  12. Sympathetic division
    • 1. Preganglionic neurion in lateral gray horns, axons in ventral root
    • 2. Ganglionic neuron near vertebral column
    • Paired chain ganglia - each side of spinal cord
    • body wall, head, thoraic cavity (heart & lungs)
    • 3 collateral ganglia - anterior of spinal cord
    • abdominalpelvic cavity
    • 2 adrenal ganglia - in adrenal medulla
  13. Ganglionic neurons and their target organs
    Sympathetic chain ganglia (paired) - target visceral effectors in throaic cavity, head, body wall and limbs

    Collateral ganglia (unpaired) - visceral effectors in abdominalpelvic cavity

    Adrenal medullae (paired) - organs and systems throughout the body
  14. Functions of sympathetic division
    • 1. Stimulates dilator muscles of eyes
    • 2. Inhibit salivary and digestive gland secretion
    • 3. stimulates copious sweating
    • 4. stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • 5. stimulates contraction of arrector pili
    • 6. increase heart rate and force of contraction
    • 7. vasodilation of heart blood vessels
    • 8. dilates brochioles
    • 9. inhibits urination
    • 10. decrease activity of glands and muscles of digestivge system
    • 11. contract anal sphincter
    • 12. stimulates liver to release glucose to blood
    • 13. constricts most vessels and increase blood pressure
    • 14. increase alretness
    • 15. increase metabolic rate

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