Lymph Head Neck

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Lymph Head Neck
2011-03-28 14:58:15
lymph head neck

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  1. consists of lymph fluid, collecting ducts and various tissues including the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, adenoids, and Peyer patches
    lymphatic system
  2. protects the body from antigenic substances of invading organisms, removes damaged cells from circulation and provides partial, but often ineffecient barrier to maturation of malignant cells w/in body
    immune system
  3. Every tissue supplied by blood vessels has lymphatic vessels except
    brain and placenta
  4. is a clear, sometimes opalescent or yellow-tingued fluid that contains a variety of WBCs (mostly lymphocytes) and on occasion, RBCs
  5. the drainage point for the right upper body is a lymphatic trunk that empties into the
    right subclavian vein
  6. drains lymph from the rest of the ody into the left subclavian vein
    thoracic duct
  7. are discrete structures surrounded by capsule composed of connective tissue and few elastic fibers and usually occur in groups
    lymph nodes
  8. located in subcu connective tissues
    superficial nodes
  9. lie beneath the fascia of muscles and w/in various body cavities
    deeper nodes
  10. defend against invasion of microorganisms and other particles w/ filtration and phagocytosis and aid in the maturation of lymphocytes and monocytes
    lymph nodes
  11. central to the body's response to antigenic substances; not identical in size or fcn; small - 5 times that; arise from number of sits in body; primarily produced in bone marrow
  12. sense the difference in cells of the body that have been invaded by any foreign substance or even a malignant change; have important role in controlling immune responses brought about by B-lymphoctyes
  13. type of immunity involving the antibodies produced by B cells
  14. type of immunity involving attacks on "invaders" by the cells themselves
  15. located in superior mediastinum, extending upward into lower neck; essential for development of protective immune fcn; site for production of T-cells
  16. situated in left upper quadrant of ab cavity btwn stomach and diaphragm; blood forming organ early in life, site for storage of red corpuscles and part of body's defense system with blood-filtering macrophages
  17. made up of lymphatic noduls and diffuse lymphatic tissue of the spleen
    white pulp
  18. made up of venous sinusoids of the spleen
    red pulp
  19. set btwn palatine arches on either side of pharynx just beyond base of tongue; organized as follicles and crypts; covered by mucous membrane
    palatine tonsils
  20. located at nasopharyngeal border
    pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids
  21. located near the base of the tongue
    lingual tonsils
  22. small, raised areas of lymph tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine and consist of many clustered lymphoid noduls and serve the intestinal tract
    Peyer's patches
  23. the immune system and lymphoid system begin developing at what week of gestation
  24. at its largest relative to rest of body shortly after birth, reaches its greates absolute weight at puberty; then involutes replacing much of its tissue w/ fat and becoming rudimentary organ in adult
  25. inguinal, occipital and postauricular nodes are common before ? age
    2 years
  26. cervical and submandibular nodes are uncommon during the ? year but more common in older children
  27. _____nodes are not usually found in infants and their presence assoicated w/ high incidence of malignancy, is always a cause for concern
  28. _____ is a state of altered immune fcn
  29. an increased number of lymphocytes in the blood represents a systemic response to _____ and some ______
    viral infections and bacterial infections
  30. the nodes of older adults are more likely to be _____ and ____, a contributing factor in impaired ability to resist infection
    fibrotic and fatty
  31. to gently palpate for superficial lymph nodes, use what?
    pads of second, third, and fourth fingers
  32. ____ is almost always indictaive of inflammation
  33. small, multiple nodes that feel like BBs under the skin; movable, discrete and move under your fingers
    "shotty" nodes
  34. a node that is ______ is cause for concern
  35. enlarged lymph node(s)
  36. inflamed and enlarged lymph node(s)
  37. inflammation of lymphatics that drain an area of infection; tender erythematous streaks extend proximally from infected area; regional nodes may also be tender
  38. edematous swelling due to excess accumulation of lymph fluid in tissues caused by inadequate lymph drainage
  39. congenital malformation of dilated lymphatics
  40. wavelike motion that is felt when node is palpated
  41. group of nodes that feel connected and seem to move as a unit
  42. ____ nodes are not usually tender
  43. nodes may become warm or tender to the touch, matted, and much less discrete with
    bacterial infections
  44. involvement of lymph nodes to which a ______ has spread is often asymmetric; contralateral nodes in similar location may not be palpable
  45. is the dividing line for the anterior and posterior traingles of the neck and is useful landmark for describing location
    anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
  46. a _____ node in the left supraclavicular region may be result of either ab or htoracic malignancy
  47. To palpate the inguinal and popliteal area, have the pt lie _____ w/ knee slightly flexed
  48. facial muscles are innervated by cranial nerves
    V trigeminal and VII facial
  49. is the major accessible artery of the face
    temporal artery
  50. glands located anterior to the ear and above the mandible
  51. glands located medial to mandible at the angle of the jaw
  52. glands located anteriorly in the floor of the mouth
  53. is formed by cervical vertebrae, ligaments, and sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles which give it support and movement
  54. is formed by the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscles, mandible, and midline
    anterior triangle
  55. is formed by the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles and clavicle and contains the posterior cervical lymph nodes
    posterior triangle
  56. is the largest endocrine gland in the body, producing thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); has two lateral lobes that are butterfuly shaped and joined by isthmus at lower aspect
    thyroid gland
  57. a ____ lobe extending upward from the isthmus slightly to the left of midline, is present in about 1/3 of the population
  58. _____ are the membranous spaces formed where four cranial bones meet and intersect
    anterior and posterior fontanels
  59. ossification of the sutures begins after completion of brain growth at about ____ and is finished by adulthood
    6 years
  60. the posterior fontanel ossifies usually blosing by ____ and the anterior fontanel closing by ____
    2 months and 24 months
  61. pregnancy is a _____ state
  62. the rate of ___ production and degradation gradually decreases with aging and the thyroid gland becomes more______
    T4; fibrotic
  63. a horizontal jerking or bobbing motion may be associated with a
  64. nodding movement may be associated with ____, esp. if nodding is synchronized with the pulse
    aortic insufficieny
  65. is defined as an expression or appearance of face and features of head and neck that, when considered together, is characteristic of a clinical condition or syndrome
  66. suspect _______ when the entire side of the face is affected
    facial nerve paralysis
  67. suspect ____ when the lower face is affected
    facial nerve weakness
  68. if only the mouth is involved, suspect a problem with the peripheral _______
    trigeminal nerve
  69. spasmodic muscular contractions of the face, head, or neck; may be associated w/ pressure on or degenerative changes o the facial nerves, a feature of Tourette syndrome or possibly pyschogenic in origin
  70. _____ of the head and neck is not routinely performed with one exception when evaluating for hypercalcemia, where may produce hyperactive masseteric reflex, the Chvostek sign
  71. is not routinely performed but if you suspect a vascular anomaly of the brain, use the bell and listen over temporal region, over eyes, and below occiput
  72. webbing, excessive posterior cervical skin or an unusually short neck may be associated w/
    chromosomal anomalies
  73. the transverse portion of the omohyoid muscle in the posterior triangle can sometimes be mistaken for a
  74. marked edema of the neck may be associated w/
    local infections
  75. mass filling the base of the neck or visible thyroid tissue that glides upward when pt swallows may indicate an enlarged
  76. the thyroid and cricoid cartilages should be smooth and nontender and move under your finger when the pt
  77. a tugging sensation, synchronous with the pulse, is evidence of ________ suggesting the presence of an aortic aneurysm
    tracheal ring sign (Cardarelli's sign or Oliver's sign)
  78. ____ can actually make exam of thyroid more difficult
  79. if the thyroid gland is enlarged, auscultation for vascular sounds w/ the ______; in a hypermetabolic state, blood supply is dramatically increased and vascular bruit, a soft rushing sound, may be heard
    bell of stethoscope
  80. is subcu edema over the present part of the infant's head at birth; most common form of birth trauma of the scap and usually occurs over the occiput and crosses suture lines
    caput succedaneum
  81. is a subperiosteal collection of blood and is therefore bound by the suture lines; commonly found in the parietal region and may not be immediately obvious at birth; firm and edges are well defined; does not cross suture lines; may liquefy and become fluctuant on palpation as it ages
  82. preterm infnats often have long, narrow heads (______) because their soft cranial bones become flattened w/ positioning and weight of the head
  83. can result from premature fusion of one of the sutures (craniosynotosis) or from external deformation
  84. is common among infants with toritcollis
    positional plagiocephaly
  85. bulging of the skill of the frontal areas is associated w/ prematurity, thalassemia, and rickets
  86. resistance to flexion of the neck is associated w/ meningeal irriation
    nuchal rigidity
  87. a third fontenal (mastoid fontanel) located btwn anterior and posterior fontanels, may be an expected variant but is also common in infants w/
    Down syndrome
  88. in infants younger than 6 months, the anterior fontenal diameter should not exceed_____; should get progressively smaller beyond that age, closing completely by_____
    4-5 cm; 18-24 months
  89. a ____ fontanel with marked pulsations may indicate increased intracranial pressure from a space-occupying mass or meningitis
  90. a softening of the outer table of the skull
  91. a ___ upon palpation of clavicles is indicative of fracture that occured at time fo birth in newborns
  92. a ring of 2 cm or less byond the rim of the trnasilluminator is expected on all regions of the head excep the ____, where ring should be 1 cm or less
  93. direct prercussion of the skull with one finger is useful to detect
    Macewen sign
  94. ___ are common in children up to 5 years or in children with anemia; after 5, presence may suggest vascular anomalies or increased intracranial pressure
    cranial bruits
  95. "mask of preg"; blotchy, brownish hyperpigmentation of the face, particularly over the malar prominences and forehead; may further darken w/ sun expsoure, generally fades after delivery