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processes of working with others and against them.
tendency for people to help others on the job sometimes when theres no benefit to them.
- person's perceptions and expectations about the mutual obligations in an employment relationship (or any relat.)
- what one person expects may not be what another expects.
informal expectations b/t indivs whose relationships are exclusively economic and temporary.
informal expectations b/t indivs whoe relationships are close and personal in nature.
combines psyc contracts with relational contracts and transactional contracts.
calculus based trust
when people believe that another person will behave as promised out of fear of getting punished for doing otherwise.
identification based trust
- trust gorunded less in deterrents and more in the power of personal relations
- based on accepting and understanding another person's wants and desires.
trust that occurs as a set of collective perceptions develops among members of temporary groups.
pitching in to help your colleague when it may not benefit you.
each person can increase their indiv gains by acting in a purely selfish manner.
reasons to cooperate and reasons to compete.
tendency to treat other as they have treated us.
natural predispositions toward working with or against others.
types of persona orientation
- individualists - want to do their best
- competitors - want to do better than everyone
- cooperators - want to maximise joint outcomes
- equalizers - want everyone to get along
types of conflict
- substantive conflict - diff viewpoints and opinions.
- affective conflict - clashes of personalities or interpersonal tension.
- process conflict - who gets what and who does what.
negative feedback that angers the receiver rather than helps the person do a better job.
working to find a solution acceptable to all parties.
alternative dispute resolution ADR
disputing parties work with a neutral party who helps settle thri argument.
a neutral party works with both sides to reach a settlement.
- specific recommendations for compromise offered by a mediator
- parties consider joint benefits
third party (arbitrator) has power to impose or recommend the terms of an agreement.
destructive org deviance
behav. that violates the org and societal norms.
constructive org deviance
behav. that deviates from org norms but are consistent with societal norms.
playing on the comp during work.
efforts by indivs to harm others with whom they work or have worked in the past.
types of aggression
- incivility - lack of regard/respect for others.
- obstructionism - behav. to impede targets performance
- over aggression - physical, direct verbal
characteristics of aggressors
- high trait anger: tendency to respond to sits in anger.
- positive attitude toward revenge
- past experience with aggression: history involving exposure to aggression.
- overt expressions of anger: tendency to express rather than inhibit anger.
displays of hostile verrbal and physical behaviors usu. by a manager.
mistreatment of an indiv at work that endangers their physical or mental health.
attemtps to affect another in a desired way.
the capacity to exert influence over others.
able to influence others b/c of the formal power associated with your job.
- power b/c others recognize and accept their authority.
power to control the rewards others want to receive.
the capacity to dole out punishments
power available to people by virtue of their positions is based on the data and knowledge they have at their disposal.
gaining power by an indivs own unique qualities or characteristics.
- legitimate power
- reward power
- coercive power
- information power
- expert power
- referent power
- rational persuasion
power from having knowldge of a business or some facet of it.
the fact that one is admired or respected by others.
personalities are so powerful and magnetic they seem to put others in a kind of trance.
people tend to prefer using ________ power most and ____________ power least
capacity to neutralize another's attemtps t control.
- tendency for people to behave in ways that are frank, sincere, and candid in their dealings with others.
- high power increased performance in people who had low straightforwardness but did not increase perf. in people with high sfdness.
process of delegating authority to indivs at the lowest levels in orgs at which competent decisions can be made.
adopting practices of empowerment will create a climate of empowerment.
resource dependency model
power is in subunits able to control the greatest share of valued org resources.
strategic contingencies model
power can be enhanced by subunits that have the capacity to reduce the levels of uncertainty faced by others.
degree to which an organizational unit has a key impact on others b/c it has to be consulted and b/c its activities have immediate effects.
degree to which its the only unit that can perform its particular duties.
quid pro quo sexual harassment
exchange of sexual favors for employment favors.
hostile environment sexual harassment
conditions where the ability to work effectively and comfortably is compromised.
actions by indivs directed towards furthering their own interests without regard for others well being.
getting people to like you by agreeing with them.
to whatever it takes to get others to like them.