AP_Chapter_13.txt

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lyons1998
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7569
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AP_Chapter_13.txt
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2010-02-21 14:39:50
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holes chapter 13 anatomy and phsyiology endocrine
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Chapter 13 Hole's A&P Endocrine
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  1. substance secreted by and endocrine gland and transported into the blood
    hormones
  2. cell with specific receptors on which a hormones exerts its effect
    target cell
  3. type of endocrine secretion in which the hormone affects nearby cells
    paracrine
  4. hormone that acts on the same cell that secreted it
    autocrine
  5. gland that secretes its products into a duct or onto a body surface
    exocrine gland
  6. (lipids) type of organic molecule including complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms;
    all are derived from cholesterol;
    includes sex hormones such as testosterone and the estrogens, and secretions of the adrenal cortex, aldosterone and cortisol
    Steroid Hormones
  7. hormones called amines;
    derived from the amino acid tyrosine;
    synthesized in the adrenal medulla (inner portion of the adrenal gland);
    include: protien hormones, peptide hormones, prostglandins
    Nonsteroid Hormones
  8. a steroid hormone;
    action: stimulate the kidneys to retain sodium
    aldosterone
  9. a second messenger
    cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)
  10. organic compound that activates an enzyme bound to the inner surface of a cell membrane, eliciting a signal
    G Protien
  11. enzyme activate when certian hormones bind receptors on cell membranes;
    it catalyzes the circularization of ATP to cyclic AMP/cAMP
    adenylate cyclase
  12. enzyme that catalyzes the reaction to form a phosphoprotein
    protien kinases
  13. a mechanisim that restores a biochemical or other balance in which build up of a product supresses its synthesis
    negative feedback
  14. a hormone that has an endocrine gland as its target tissue
    tropic hormones
  15. endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that consists of anterior and posterior lobes;
    the hypophysis
    pg 492
    pituitary gland
  16. hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism
    growth hormone
  17. protein that promotes milk production
    prolactin
  18. glycoprotein that controls certain hormones from the thyroid gland;
    can also stimulate growth of the thyroid gland;
    abnormally high levels lead to goiter
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (aka - thyrotropin)
  19. peptide that controls the manufacture and secretion of certain hormones from the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  20. glycoprotein;
    substance secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate development of an ovarian follicle in a femal or production of sperm cells in a male
    p 497
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  21. a hormone that the anterior pituitary secretes that controls formation of the corpus luteum in females and testosterone secretion in males
    luteinizing hormone
  22. hormone of the posterior pituitary gland that enhances water conservation in the kidneys; ADH, vasopressin
    antidiuretic hormone
  23. hormone released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that contracts smooth muscles in the uterus and mammary glands
    oxytocin
  24. endocrine gland just below the larnyx and in front of the trachea that secretes thyroid hormones
    thyroid gland
  25. narrow connection between two larger parts.
    isthmus
  26. two important thyroid hormones that affect cellular metabolic rates
    thyroxine and triiodothyronine
  27. hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (T4)
    thyroxine
  28. hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (T3); five times more potent that T4
    triiodothyronine
  29. thyroid hormone that regulates blood calcium concentration; helps lower concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions by decreasing the rate at chich they leave the bones and enter extracellular fluids by inhibiting bone destruction by osteoclasts; increases excretion by kidneys.
    calcitonin
  30. hyperthyroidism and graves disease are caused by:
    hyperthyroid
  31. hashimoto diesase (antibodies against self attck thyroid cells resulting in hypothyroidism); hypothyroidism, and simple goiter are caused by:
    hypothydroid
  32. symptoms: stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, mental retardation, low body temperature, sluggishness
    cretinism (infantile - hypothyroidism)
  33. symptoms: low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, sluggishness, poor appetite, swollen tissues, mental dullness
    myxedema (adult - hypothyroidism)
  34. symptoms: autoantibodies (against self) bind TSH receptors on thyroid cell membranes, mimicking action of TSH, overstimulating gland (hyperthyroidism); exopthalmia (protusion of the eyes) and goiter
    graves disease
  35. symptoms: high metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes, goiter
    hyperthyroidism
  36. one of four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior part of the thyroid gland.
    parathryoid gland
  37. hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that helps regulate the level of blood calcium and phosphate ions
    parathyroid hormone PTH
  38. endocrine gland on the superior portion of each kidney
    adrenal gland
  39. inner part of the adrenal gland
    adrenal medulla
  40. outer part of the adrenal gland
    adrenal cortex
  41. epinephrine and norpinephrine are hormones of the
    adrenal medulla
  42. hormone the adrenal medulla secretes during times of stress
    epinephrine
  43. neurotransmitter released from the axons of some nerve fibers
    norpinphrine
  44. produces aldosterone, cortisol, and sex hormones
    adrenal cortex
  45. adrenal cortical hormone that regulates sodium and potassium ion concentrations and fluid volume
    aldosterone

    • glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex; inhibits synthesis of protein in tissues increasing blood concentration of amino acids, promotes the release of fatty acids from lipids to use as energy, and stimulates liver cells to synthesize glucose increasing blood glucose concentrations
    • cortisol
  46. supplement sex hormones from the gonads; may be converted into estrogens
    adrenal androgens
  47. glandular organ in the abdominal cavitiy that secretes hormones and digestive enzymes
    pancreas
  48. hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that releases glucose from glycogen
    glucagon
  49. hormone the pancreatic islets secrete that stimulates cells to take up glucose
    insulin
  50. hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that inhibits the release of growth hormone
    somatostatin
  51. hormone that the pineal gland secretes
    melatonin
  52. pattern ofrepeated activity associated with the cycles of night and day
    circadian rhythm
  53. glandular organ in the mediastinum, behind the sternum and between the lungs
    thymus
  54. group of peptides the thymus gland secretes that increases production of certian types of white blood cells
    thymosins
  55. response to factors perceived as life threatening
    stress
  56. factor that can stimulate a stress response
    stressor

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