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2011-05-23 04:58:25

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  1. Indications for cephalexin?
    Staph and strep infections in people with mild-moderate penicillin allergy.

    UTI's due to susceptible gram negative bacteria
  2. Precautions of cephalexin?
    reduce dose in renal impairment crcl <20mL/min
  3. Adverse Effects of cephalexin?
    cholestatic hepatitis
  4. Dosage of cephalexin?
    • 250-500mg every 6 hours max 4g daily
    • If renal impairment, 250-500 every 8-12 hours
    • 200mg 12 hourly for UTI
  5. Counselling points for cephalexin?
    • Common adverse effects: diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting.
    • neurotoxicity
    • Finish whole course
  6. Indications for Amoxycillin?
    • -Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis,
    • -community-acquired pneumonia
    • -Acute bacterial otitis media,
    • - sinusitis
    • -Gonococcal infection
    • -acute prostatitis,
    • - acute pyelonephritis,
    • -Acute cholecystitis,
    • -peritonitis,
  7. Precautions of amoxicillin?
    • Infectious mononucleosis - high risk of rash
    • Allergy to penicillins
  8. Adverse effects of amoxycillin?
    • Rash
    • Diarrhoea, nausea
    • Clostridium difficile
  9. Dosage of ammoxicillin
    • 250-500mg 8 hourly, or 1g twice daily
    • Reduce in renal impairment
  10. Counselling points for amoxicillin?
    • Take whole course
    • Adverse effects
  11. Indications for amox/clavulanic acid?
    • •Hospital acquired pneumonia
    • •UTI
    • •Acute bacterial sinusitis - unresponsive to amox
  12. Precautions of Amox/Clavulanic acid?
    • Infections mononucleosis - risk of rash
    • Hepatic impairment
  13. Adverse effects of amox/clavulanic acid?
    • Increases in bilirubin and liver enzymes
    • Rash
    • cholestatic hepatitis
  14. Dose of amox/clavulanic acid?
    500-875mg 12 hourly for 5-10 days
  15. Counselling of amox/clavulanic acid?
    • Take with food
    • Take whole course
    • Adverse effects
    • CMI
  16. Indications for Azithromycin?
    • Chlamydia
    • Streptococcal Tonsilitis
    • community acquired pneumonia
    • Travellers diarrhoea
  17. Precautions for azithromycin?
    • Prolonged QT interval
    • Hepatic imparment
  18. Adverse effects of azithomycin?
    • nausea, vomiting
    • rash, headache
    • steven johns syndrome
  19. Dose of azithromycin?
    • 500mg once daily on day 1,
    • 500mg once daily for two days, or 250mg once daily for 4 days
  20. Indicatins for Roxithromycin?
    • Upper and lower respiratory tract infections
    • Community acquired pneumonia
    • Skin infections
  21. Precautions of roxithromycin?
    • Prolongation of QT interval
    • caution in hepatic impairment
  22. Adverse effects of roxithromycin?
    • ototoxicity
    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    • candidia infections
  23. Dose of roxithromycin?
    • 150mg twice daily
    • or 300mg once daily
  24. Counselling for roxithromycin
    Best absorbed if taken 15 minutes before food. If you feel sick you can take it with food.
  25. Indications for cefaclor?
    • Otitis media
    • H.Influenzae respiratory tract infections
    • Acute bacterial sinusitis
  26. Precautions for cefaclor?
    • renal impairment
    • allergy to cephlasporins
    • renal impairment
  27. Adverse effects of cefaclor?
    • serum sickness like syndrome
    • diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting
    • neurotoxicity
  28. Dose of cefaclor?

    • 250-500mg 8 hourly
    • 375-350mg 12 hourly if controlled release

    • Take with food, do ot crush or chew
    • Finish whole course
    • Adverse effects
  29. Indications for Doxycycline?
    • Acne
    • Rosacea
    • M.Pneumonia infections
    • Acute bacterial sinusitis
    • Malarial prophylaxis
  30. Precautions with Doxycycline?
    • Only use in first 18 months of pregnancy - afterwards, stains babys teeth
    • Treatment with oral retinoids
  31. Adverse effects of doxycycline?
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea,
    • epigastric burning, tooth discolouration,
    • bone deformation in kids under 8
    • Photosensitivity
  32. Dose of Doxycycline?

    200mg on day 1 then reduce to 100mg daily

    • Take a single dose in the morning rather than at night
    • If for malaria prophylaxis, take doxy two days before entering country and for 2-4 weeks upon returning. See a doctor if illness develops within 12 months of returning.
    • Also counsel on approriate insect repellent
  33. Indications for Erythromycin?
    • Upper and lower respiratory tract infections
    • Rheumatic fever prophylaxis
    • Chlaymidial infections in babies
  34. Precautions of erythromycin?
    • Avoid use in first trimester
    • Prolongation of QT interval
    • Treatment of drugs which inhibit CYP450 enzymesn (can increase erythromycin concentrations)
  35. Adverse effects of erythromycin??
    • IV: thrombophlebitis
    • torsades de points

    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    • candidia
  36. Dose of erythromycin?

    250-500mg every 6-8 hours. Max 4g daily

    • This med interacts with many drugs. Tell any health professionals you are taking erythromycin.
    • Best if taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after food. If it causes upset stomach, take with food.
    • Tell doc if baby is irritable or vomiting whilst taking this.
  37. Indications of Fluconazole?
    Vulvovaginal candidiasis
  38. Precautions of Fluconazole?
    Prolongation of QT interval
  39. Adverse Effects of fluconazole
    • Anorexia
    • Fatigue
    • Rash, headache, nausea, vomiting
  40. Dosage of Fluconazole?
    50-200mg once daily for oseophagel candidiasis (upto 400mg in HIV patients with oesophageal candidiasis)

    Topical treatment: 150mg single dose
  41. Counselling of fluconazole?
    tell your doctor if you feel unusually tired, nauseaus, notice dark coloured urine, pale faeces or yellowing of the eyes and skin

    This medication interacts with a lot of drugs
  42. Indications for ketoconazole
    • Dermatophyte infections
    • Fungal skin infections
  43. Precautions for Ketoconazole
    C/I with simvastatin, domperidone,

    Adrenal insufficiency

    achlorhydric patients - decreased absorption of ketoconazole.
  44. Adverse effects of Ketoconazole

    Fatigue, dizziness, gynecomastia
  45. Dose of Ketoconazole??

    200mg once daily, increase upto 400mg once daily.

    • Best absorption if taken with food.
    • Do NOT take antactids within 2 hours since it can impair absorption.
    • Tell your doctor if you feel unusually tired, nauseous or are not eating,
    • or if you notice dark urine, pale faeces or yellowing of your skin or
    • the whites of your eyes.
  46. Indications for Metronidazole?
    • clostridium difficile
    • Intra-abdominal infections
    • Rosacea
    • Bacterial vaginosis
  47. Precautions of metronidazole
    • Treatment with disulfiram
    • Careful in patients who have seizures
    • Careful in patients with blood dyscrasias
  48. Adverse effects of Metronidazole?
    • IV: Thrombophlebitis
    • Clostridium difficile
    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    • seizures, dark urine
  49. Dose of metronidazole?

    200-400mg every 8-12 hours Max 4g daily

    • Take with food. Liquid is best absorbed 1hour before food.
    • This medication may make you feel dizzy or confused.
    • Avoid alcohol during treatment and one day after to prevent nausea, vomiting, flushing, headache, palpitations.

    Stop taking metronidazole if you have pain, numbnedd or tingling in hands or feet
  50. Indications for terbinafine?
    • Onchyomycosis
    • Dermatophyte infection of skin,groin, feet
  51. Precautions for terbinafine?
    psoriasis- may worsen

    Careful in renal impairment. Reduce dose if crcl <50ml/min
  52. Adverse effects of terbinifine?
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, elevation of liver enzymes
    • Taste disturbances
  53. Dose of terbinafine?

    ochyomycosis- 250mg once daily

    • Tell your doctor if you feel unusually tired, nauseous or are
    • not eating; or if you notice dark urine, pale faeces or yellowing of the
    • whites of your eyes or skin; or if you get fever, mouth ulcers, sore
    • throat or unusual bruising.Nail infection: this treatment should cure your nail infection but the nail needs to grow out before it looks completely healthy.
  54. Indications for aciclovir/famciclovir?
    Treatment and prevention of herpes simplex infections

    Shingles (varicella zoster virus reactivation)

    Acute chickenpox (varicella zoster) in immunocompromised patientsHerpetic eye infections,
  55. Precautions of aciclovir/famciclovir?
    • Renal impairment
    • Neurological abnormalities
  56. Adverse effects of aciclovir/famciclovir?
    nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hallucinations (high dose), headache,

    vertigo, confusion, dizziness, oedema, sore throat, abdominal pain, constipation, rash, weakness
  57. Dose of Aciclovir?
    400mg three times daily for genital herpes

    800mg five times daily for shingles
  58. Counselling for aciclovir/famciclovir?
    Make sure that you drink plenty of fluids (at least 1.5–2 L daily).

    Recurrent herpes simplex infections: carry a course of tablets with you so that you can start them as soon as you notice symptoms.

    Dosage 5 times daily: take every 4 hours during waking hours.
  59. Dose of famciclovir?
    250mg three times daily for infection or shingles