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tissue that functions as barrier against mechaical injury, pathogens and fluid loss; cover outside of body and line organs and cavities wihtin the body
tissue that binds and supports other tissues in the body
tissue that is the most abundant and is responsible for all types of body movement
tissue whose function is to sense stimuli and transmit signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another
emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero; can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact
removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecuels as gas
transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface, as wen a breeze contributes to heat lsos from a lizard's dry skin
transfer of thermal motion between molecuels objects in direct contact with each other
A __ traps heat in the body core, thus reducing heat loss from the extremities, particulartly when they are immersed in cold water or in contact with ice or snow. In essence, heat in the arterial blood emerging from body core is transferred directly to the returning venous blood instead of being lost to the environment
countercurrent exchange system
many aquatic animals are __, which sift small food particles fromt eh water.
Most animals, like humans, are __, which eat relatively large pieces of food.
__ suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host.
__ are animals that live iin or on their food source.
Digestion in a hydra:
Digestion begins in the __ and is completed __ after small food particles are engulfed by speicalized cells of the __.
- gastrovascular cavity
The __ of an earthworm includes a musclular pharynx that sucks food in through the mouth. Food passes through the esophagus and is stored and moistened in the crop. Mechanical digestion occurs in the muscular __, which pulverizes food with the aid of small bits of sand and gravel. Further digestiona dn absorption occur in the intestine which has a dorsal fold, the typhlosole, that increases the surface area for nutrient absorption.
A grasshopper has several digestive chambers grouped into three main regions: __, with an esophagus and crop, __, __. Food is moistened and stored in the crop, but most digestion occurs in the __. Gastric cecae pouches extending from the beginning of the __, function in digestion and absorpion.
- midgut x2
many birds have three separate chambers- the __, __, __- where food is pulverized and churned before passing into the intestine. A bird's crop and gizzard funciton very much like thouse of an earthworm. In most birds, chem digestiona nd absorption of nutrients occur int he intestine
From mouth to stomach:
- When a person is not swallowing, the __ is contracted, teh epiglottis is up, and the glottis is open, allowing air to flow through the trachea to the lungs.
- The swallowing reflex is triggered when a __ of the food reaches the pharynx
- The __, the upper part of the respiratory tract, moves upward and the epiglottis tips over hte glottis, preventing food from entering the trachea
- The __ relaxes, allowing the bolus to enter the esophagus
- After the food has entered the esophagus, the __ moves downward, and opens the breathing passage.
- Waves of muscular contraction (__) move the bolus downt eh esophagus to the stomach
- esophageal sphincter
- esophageal sphincter
Interior surface of the stomach:The interior of the stomach wall is highly foldeed and dotted with pits leading into tubular gastric glands.
__: The __ have three types of cells that secrete different components of the gastric juice: __, __ and __.
- gastric glands x2
- mucus cells
- parietal cells
- chief cells
__ secrete mucus, which lubricates and protecets the cells lining the stomach.
__ secrete pepsinogen, an inactive form of hte digestive enzytmee pepsin
__ secrete HCl.
- THe oral cavity digest carbs by __.
The stomach digests protein by __.
THe lumen of the small intestine digests carbs by __
- digests polypeptides by ___,w hich become smaller polypeptides, which are digested by __.
- digests DNA and RNA by __
Digests fat globules by __, which become fat droplets which are digested by __, which becomes glycertol,f atty acids, monoglycerides.
- pancreatic anylases
- pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin
- pancreatic carboxypeptidase
- pancreatic nucleases
- bile salts
- pancreatic lipase
The epithelium of small intestine digests disaccharides by __.
- digests small peptides by _(3)_
- digests nucleotides by __, and nucleosides by __(2)__.
- dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase
- nucleosidases and phosphatases
Amino acids or fatty acids trigger hte reelase of __, whcih stimulates the release of enzymes fromt he pancreas and of bile from the gallbladder (from the duodenum)
__ from the duodenum stimulates the pancreas to release sodium bicarbotae, which neutralizes chyme.
__ circulates via the bloodstream back to the stomach, where it stimulates production of gastic juices, (from stomach)
When chyme rich in fats enters the duodenum, __ and __ inhibit peristalsis and acid secretion by the stomach, thereby slowing digestion.
Absorption of fats:
1) In the lumen, bile salts keep fat droplets from caolescing. Wi/in droplets, fats (__) are broken down by the enzyme __.
2) After diffusing into epithelial cells, __ and __ are reformed into fats.
3) __ are incorporated into water-soluble globues called __.
4- __ leave epithelial cells by exocytosis,and enter __, where they are carried away by the lymph and later pass into large veins.
- fatty acids
- chylomicrons x2
__: When the cow first chews and swallows a mothful of grass, boluses enter the rumen.
__: some boluses also enter the reticulum. In both the rumen and the reticulum, mutualistic prok and protists go to work ont eh cellulose rich eman. As by products fo their metabolism the microorganisms secrete fatty acids. The cow periodically regurgitates and rechews the cud which further breaks down the fibers making them mroe accessible to further microbial action
3) __: The cow then reswallows the cud, which moves to the omasum, where water is removed.
4) __: the cud, containing great numbers of microorganisms finally passes to the abosamum for digestion by the cow's own enzymes
__ promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood, increasing blood glucose level.
__ enhances the transport of glucose into body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen. As a result, blood glucose level drops.
Appetite regulating hormones:
Produced by adipose tissue, __ suppresses appetite as its level increases. When body fat decreases, __ levels fall, and appetite increases.
The hormone __, secreted by the small intestine after meals acts as an appetite suppressant that coutners the appetite stimulant ghrelin.
A rise in blood sugar level after a meal stimulates the pancreas to secrete __. In addition to its other functions, __ suppresses the appeetitite by acting on the brain.
Secreted by the stomach wall, __ is one of the signals that triggers feelings of hunger as mealtimes approach. In dieters who lose weight, __ levels increase, which may be one reason its so hard to stay on a diet.
- leptin x2
- insulin x2
- ghrelin x2
__ include all body tissues except the primary gas exchange tissues.
Amphibinas hav e a 3 chambered heart and two circuits of blood bflow: __ and __.
Lizards, snakes nad turtles have a three-chambered heart, with a __partially dividing in a single ventricle. In crocodilians, the __ is complete and the heart is four-chambered.
mammals and birds have a 4-chambered heart. In birds, the major vessels near the heart are slightly different than shown, but the pattern of __ i essentially hte same.
- septum x2
- double circulation
The cardiac cycle:
- During a relaxation phase (diastole), blood returning from the large veins flows into the atria and ventricles through teh __.
2- A brief period of atrial systeole then forces all blood remaining in the atria into the ventricles.
3- During the remainder of hte cycle, __ pumps bloodinto large arteries throught eh __.
- AV valves
- ventricular systole
- semilunar valves
an inflatable cuff attached to a pressure gauge that measures bloood pressure in an artery
__ regulate the passage of blood into capillary beds.
What are the four constituents of the plasma?
- ions (blood electrolytes)
- plasma proteins
- substances trasnported by blood (nnutrients like glucose, fatty acids, vitamins)
What are the three cellular elements?
transport oxygen and help transprt carbon dioxide
defense and immunityt
__ is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step of the clotting process, the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. The threads of fibrin become interwoven into a clot.
movement of the respiratory medium over hte respiratory surface
A __ in the medulla sets the basic rhythm, and a control center in the pons moderates it, smoothing out the transitions between inhalations and exhalations.
breathing control center
Nerves from teh medulla's control center send impulses to the diapharagm and rib muscles, stimulating them to contract and causing __.
In a person at rest, these nerve impulses result in about 10-14 inhalations per minute. Between inhalations the muscles relax and the person exhales.
Sensors int he __ detect changes in the pH (reflecting __ concentrations) of the blood and __ bathing hte surface of the brain.
- cerebrospinal fluid
Sensors in major blood vessels detect changes in blood pH and send nerve impulses to the medulla. In response, the medulla's control center alters the rate and depth of breathing, increaising both if __ levels rise or decreasing both if __ levels fall.
Other sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries signal hte medulla to increase the breathing rate when __ levels in blood become very low.
Carbon dioxide transport in the blood.
1- __ produced by body tissues diffuses into teh interstitial fluid and the plasma.
2- Over __ of the CO2 diffuses into RBCs., leaving __ in the plasma as dissolved CO2.
3- Some CO2 is picked up and transported by __.
4- However, most CO2 reacts with water in RBCs, forming __, a reactiion catalyzed by __ contained w/in RBCs.
5- __ dissociates into a __ and a __.
6- __ binds most of hte H+ from H2CO3, preventing the H from acidifying hte blood and thus preventing the __.
7- Most of the HCO3- diffuses into the plasma, where it is carried into the bloodstream to the lungs.
8- In the lungs, HCO3- diffuses from the plasma into RBCs, conbining with H+ released from __ and forming H2CO3
9- __ is converted back to CO2 and water. CO2 is also unloaded from hemoglobin. 10- CO2 diffuses into teh plasma and the __.
11- CO2 diffuses into the __, from which it is expelled during exhalation. The reduction of CO2 concentration int eh plasma drives the breakdown of H2CO3 into CO2 and water int he RBCs, a reversal of the reaction that occcurs near body tissues.
- carbonic acid
- carbonic anhydrase
- carbonic acid
- hydrogen ion
- bicarbonate ion
- Bohr Shift
- Carbonic acid
- alveolar space