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Explain how the rate of photosynthesis can be measured.
- The rate of photosynthesis can be measured in the following ways...
- Carbon Dioxide uptake: the amount of CO2 being used by a plant can be measured in an enclosed chamber with the use of a pH monitor in water. This method. The rate measured is relative, because some CO2 is used in cellular respiration.
- Oxygen Production: The amount of oxygen excreted can be measured in an enclosed chamber by measuring the volume of O2 bubbles produced.
- Increase in Biomass: Dry mass of the plant can be measured before and after photosynthesis to measure if an increase in biomass has occurred. Also with the use of iodine, the amount of starch in the leaves can be measured. This measurement of photosynthesis is also relative, because carbohydrates are used internally for cellular respiration
Outline the effects of temperature and light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
- temperature: increases with increase in temp, peaks, decreases.
- An increase in temperature allows the enzymes to react by increasing the amount of molecular collisions, which in turn increases the chance that an enzyme will match its correct active site. Once optimum temp is surpassed, denaturation occurs
- Light intensity: rate of photosynthesis increases with increasing light intensity, then levels off
- limiting factor is the amount of CO2 available
Draw and label a diagram of a mitochondrion
What are the reactants and products of anerobic respiration?
- Reactant: Pyruvate
- Products: Lactate, ethanol and carbon dioxide
What are the products and reactants of aerobic respiration?
- Reactants: Pyruvate
- Products: Carbon dioxide and Water
Explain Aerobic Respiration
- Aerobic Respiration:
- Glycolysis can take place without oxygen. This forms the anaerobic part of cell respiration and therefore is called anaerobic cell respiration. However, the pyruvate produced from glycolysis cannot be oxidised further without the presence of oxygen. The oxidisation of the pyruvate forms part of the aerobic respiration and therefore is called aerobic cell respiration. Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of cells. The first reaction to take place is the link reaction.
- The Link Reaction:
- Mitochondria in cells take up the pyruvate which is formed from glycolysis in the cytoplasm. Once the pyruvate is in the mitochondrion, enzymes within the matrix of the mitochondrion remove hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the pyruvate. This is called oxidation (removal of hydrogen or addition of oxygen) and decarboxylation (removal of carbon dioxide). Therefore, the process is called oxidative decarboxylation. The hydrogen removed is accepted by NAD+. The link reaction results in the formation of an acetyl group. This acetyl group is then accepted by CoA and forms acetyl CoA.
- The Krebs Cycle:
- Step 1 - In the first stage of the Krebs cycle, the acetyl group from acetyl CoA is transferred to a four carbon compound. This forms a six carbon compound.Step 2 - This six carbon compound then undergoes decarboxylation (CO2 is removed) and oxidation (hydrogen is removed) to form a five carbon compound. The hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ and forms NADH + H+. Step 3 - The five carbon compound undergoes decarboxylation and oxidation (hydrogen is removed) again to form a four carbon compound. The hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ and forms NADH + H+. Step 4 - The four carbon compound then undergoes substrate-level phosphorylation and during this reaction it produces ATP. Oxidation also occurs twice (2 hydrogens are removed). The one hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ and forms NADH + H+. The other is accepted by FAD and forms FADH2. The four carbon compound is then ready to accept a new acetyl group and the cycle is repeated.The carbon dioxide that is removed in these reactions is a waste product and is excreted from the body. The oxidations release energy which is then stored by the carriers when they accept the hydrogen. This energy is then later on used by the electron transport chain to produce ATP.
- Electron Transport Chain:
- Inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria there is a chain of electron carriers. This chain is called the electron transport chain. Electrons from the oxidative reactions in the earlier stages of cell respiration pass along the chain. NADH donates two electrons to the first carrier in the chain. These two electrons pass along the chain and release energy from one carrier to the next. At three locations along the chain, enough energy is released to produce ATP via ATP synthase. ATP synthase is an enzyme that is also found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. FADH2 also donates electrons but at a later stage than NADH. Also, enough energy is released at only two locations along the chain by electrons from FADH2. The ATP production relies on energy release by oxidation and it is therefore called oxidative phosphorylation.
Draw and label a diagram of a chloroplast.
Outline the process of photosynthesis
Chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. An excited electron anywhere within the photosystem is then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers. The light-dependent reactions starts within Photosystem II. When the excited electron reaches the special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of Photosystem II it is passed on to the chain of electron carriers. This chain of electron carriers is found within the thylakoid membrane. As this excited electron passes from one carrier to the next it releases energy. This energy is used to pump protons (hydrogen ions) across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoids. This forms a proton gradient. TThe electrons from the chain of electron carriers are then accepted by Photosystem I. These electrons replace electrons previously lost from Photosystem I. Photosystem I then absorbs light and becomes photoactivated. The electrons become excited again as they are raised to a higher energy state. These excited electrons then pass along a short chain of electron carriers and are eventually used to reduce NADP+ in the stroma. NADP+ accepts two excited electrons from the chain of carriers and one H+ ion from the stroma to form NADPH. If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as NADPH accumulates within the stroma. NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor. The excited electrons from Photosystem I are then passed on to a chain of electron carriers between Photosystem I and II. These electrons travel along the chain of carriers back to Photosystem I and as they do so they cause the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane and therefore create a proton gradient. The protons move back across the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase and as they do so, ATP is produced. Therefore, ATP can be produced even when there is a shortage of NADP+. In addition to producing NADPH, the light dependent reactions also produce oxygen as a waste product. When the special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre passes on the electrons to the chain of electron carriers, it becomes positively charged. With the aid of an enzyme at the reaction centre, water molecules within the thylakoid space are split. Oxygen and H+ ions are formed as a result and the electrons from the splitting of these water molecules are given to chlorophyll. The oxygen is then excreted as a waste product. This splitting of water molecules is called photolysis as it only occurs in the presence of light.
The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions are collectively known as the Calvin Cycle. During carbon fixation, carbon dioxide in the stroma (which enters the chloroplast by diffusion) reacts with a five-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) to form a six-carbon compound. This reaction is catalysed by an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. As soon as the six-carbon compound is formed, it splits to form two molecules of glycerate 3-phosphate. Glycerate 3-phosphate is then used in the reduction reactions.Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced during the reduction reactions to a three-carbon sugar called triose phosphate. Energy and hydrogen is needed for the reduction and these are supplied by ATP and NADPH + H+ (both produced during light-dependent reactions) respectively. Two triose phosphate molecules can then react together to form glucose phosphate. The condensation of many molecules of glucose phosphate forms starch which is the form of carbohydrate stored in plants. However, out of six triose phosphates produced during the reduction reactions, only one will be used to synthesise glucose phosphate. The five remaining triose phosphates will be used to regenerate RuBP. The regeneration of RuBP is essential for carbon fixation to continue. Five triose phosphate molecules will undergo a series of reactions requiring energy from ATP, to form three molecules of RuBP. RuBP is therefore consumed and produced during the light-independent reactions and therefore these reactions form a cycle which is named the Calvin cycle.
Why is there a large amount of RuBPase in the chloroplast?
It catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle. It allows carbon dioxide to attach to RuBP
Why does the inner membrane of the mitochondria have a large surface area?
the large surface area allows more space for cellular respiration to take place. The electron transport chains are locateed on the inner membrane. When there is a large surface area, there is more space for diffusion to create a gradient and thus more space for the chains to pump H+ and that can diffuse through atp synthase to make atp