AP_Chapter 14_Blood.txt

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lyons1998
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AP_Chapter 14_Blood.txt
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2010-02-21 16:14:56
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hole\'s anatomy chapter 14 blood
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hole's anatomy chapter 14 blood
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  1. the percentage by volume of red blood cells in a sample of whole blood
    hematocrit
  2. number of red blood cells in milliliters per 100 mL of centrifuged blood pg 523
    packed cell volume
  3. fluid portion of circulating blood
    plasma
  4. A group of proteins that causes blood cells to grow and mature.
    hematopoietic growth factors
  5. large bone marrow cell that shatters to yield blood cell platelets
    megakaryocytes
  6. disk shaped cell lacking a nucleus, that is packed with the oxygen-carrying molecule hemoglobin; erythrocyte
    red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  7. oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
    hemoglobin
  8. a red blood cell at an immature stage
    erythroblasts
  9. immature red blood cell that has a network of fibrils in its cytoplasm
    reticulocytes
  10. kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation
    erythropoietin
  11. deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
    anemia
  12. two bile pigments produced from hemoglobin breakdown
    biliverdin & bilirubin
  13. cell that helps fight infection; leukocyte
    white blood cells (leukocytes)
  14. class of immune system chemicals (cytokines) with varied effects pg. 530
    interleukins
  15. protein that stimulates differentiation and maturation of white blood cells
    colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)
  16. leukocyte with granules in its cytoplasm
    granulocytes
  17. nongranulular leukocyte
    agranulocytes
  18. squeezing of leukocytes between the cells of blood vessel walls pg. 533
    diapedesis
  19. attraction of leukocytes to chemicals released from damaged cells pg. 635
    chemotaxis
  20. too many white blood cells in the blood
    leukocytosis
  21. too few white blood cells in the blood
    leukopenia
  22. lists percentages of the types of leukocytes in a blood sample
    differential white blood cell count (DIFF)
  23. blood platelet
    platelets "aka thrombocytes"
  24. a hormone that stimulates megakaryocytes to differentiate from hematopoetic stem cells pg. 534
    thrombopoietin
  25. platelets release ________ which contracts smooth muscles in the vessel walls, reducing blood flow.
    serotonin
  26. memorize table on pg 14.5 cellular components of blood; RBC 42,000,000 to 6,200,000 per microliter; neutrophil 54-62% of WBC's present; eosinophil 1-3% of WBCs; basobils less than 1% of WBCs present; monocytes 3-9% WBCs; lymphocytes 25% of WBCs present; platelets 130,000 to 360,000 per microliter
    pg 535
  27. transports oxygen and and carbon dioxide
    RBC
  28. destroys pathogenic microorganisims and parasites and removes worn cells
    WBC
  29. about twice the size of RBCs; cytoplasmic granules present
    granulocytes
  30. phagocytizes small particles; 54-62% of WBCs present; granulocyte
    neutrophils
  31. kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions; 1-3 % of WBCs; granulocyte
    eosinophils
  32. releases herapin and histamine; less than 1% of WBCs; granulocytes
    basophil
  33. gytoplasmic granules are absent
    agranulocytes
  34. phagocytizes large particles; 3-9% of WBCs; agranulocyte
    monocyte
  35. provides immunity; 25-33% of WBCs present; agranulocyte
    lymphocyte
  36. helps control blood loss from broken vessels; 130,000 to 360,000 per microliter
    platelets
  37. protein dissolved in blood plasma
    plasma proteins
  38. plasma protein that helps regulate the osmotic concentrations of blood pg. 535
    albumins
  39. type of protein in blood plasma pg. 535
    globulins
  40. plasma protein converted into fibrin during blood coagulation
    fibrinogen
  41. ilnesses indicated by elevated lymphocytess
    hairy cell lukemia, whooping cough, mononucleosis
  42. illnesses indicated by elevated eosinophils
    tapeworm infestation, hookworm infestation, allergic reactions
  43. illnesses indicated by elevated monocytes
    typhoid fever, malaria, tuberculosis
  44. illnesses indicated by elevated neutrophils
    bacterial infections
  45. illness indicated by too few helper T cells (lymphocytes)
    AIDS
  46. plasma protein; 60% of total plasma proteins; origin: liver; fxn: helps maintain colloid osmotic pressure
    albumin
  47. plasma protein; 36% of total plasma proteins
    globulin
  48. plasma protein; origin: liver; fxn: transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
    alpha globulins & beta globulins
  49. plasma protein; origin: lymphatic tissues; fxn: constitute the antibodies of immunity
    gamma globulins
  50. plasma protein; 4% of total plasma proteins; origin: liver; fxn: plays a key role in coagulation
    fibrinogen
  51. a nitrogen-containing molecule that is not a protien pg 537
    nonprotein nitrogenous substances
  52. muscle biochemical that stores energy
    creatine phosphate
  53. the stoppage of bleeding to limit blood loss
    hemostasis
  54. release of biochemicals from broken blood vesssels or damaged tissues triggers
    extrinsic clotting mechanisim
  55. blood contact with foreign surfaces in the absence of tissue damage triggers
    intrinsic clotting mechanisim
  56. insoluable, fibrous protein formed from fibrinogen during blood coagulation pg.539
    fibrin
  57. plasma protein that functions in blood clotting pg.539
    prothrombin (factor II)
  58. plasma protein converted into fibrinogen during blood coagulation pg.539
    fibrinogen (factor I)
  59. blood clotting enzyme that catalyzes formation of fibrin from fibrinogen p.39
    thrombin (factor IIa)
  60. process by which changes cause additional similar changes; producing unstable conditions pg.539
    positive feedback system
  61. fluid portion of coagulated blood
    serum
  62. blood clot that remains where it formed in blood vessel
    thrombus
  63. blood clot or gas bubble that carried in the circulation that may obstruct a blood vessel pg.541
    embolus
  64. an embolus that lodges and blocks blood flow
    embolism
  65. clumping of blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and and antigen
    agglutination
  66. chemical that stimulates B lymphocytes to produce antibodies pg.544
    antigens
  67. protein (immunoglobulin) that B cells of the immune system produces to a nonself antigen; it reacts with the antigen pg.532
    antibodies
  68. memorize chart on pg 546; preferred and permissable blood types for transfusions
    pg 546

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