Microbiology 2010 Menard

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Microbiology 2010 Menard
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Test 3 Chapters 14-19
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  1. Bacteria have to ______ in order to form an infection.

    They do so by using ________ or _______.
    adhere

    glycocalyx or fimbriae
  2. capsules are a form of _____ _____.
    Useful to a cell for both ____ and ____ of _____.
    smooth glycocalyx

    adherance and evasion of phagocytosis
  3. The waste products of ____ and ____ quite often cause illness in humans.
    fungi and protozoa
  4. An enzyme produced by Staph Aureus
    Coagulase (coagulates fibrinogen)
  5. A ________ is a substance that contributes to the disease causing ability of an organism or (_______).
    Toxin

    Pathogenicity
  6. Antibody that is produced against a specific toxin is called
    Antitoxin
  7. _____ are specific for a structure or function in host cell; primarily Gram + cells.
    exotoxin
  8. The action of an A-B Exotoxin
    1. Exotoxins are comprised of an active portion (A) and brinding portion (B) and produced inside a Gram+ bacteria cell which gets released outside the cell.

    2.The B portion of this exotoxin will attach itself to a host cell receptor on the cell membrane and then the entire A-B complex will enter the host cell by way of endocytosis.

    3. A-B exotoxin becomes enclosed in pinched-off portion of plasma membrane during pinocyctosis

    4. A-B portions then separate and the A portion alters cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis, while the B portion is released from the host cell.
  9. action of A-B exotoxin
    • 1. exotoxins composed of actiive and binding portions (A-B)
    • 2. Mostly Gram + bacteria that produce exotoxins
    • 3. Bacteria cell produces exotoxin inside cell and then secretes the A-B exotoxin outside
    • 4. A-B attaches itself to a host cells receptor with the binding portion (B)
    • 5. A-B exotoxin gets brought into host cell by endocytosis
    • 6. A-B exotoxin enclosed in pinched off portion of plasma membrane during pinocytosis
    • 7. A and B portions separate where the A portion begins to alters cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis. The B portion gets released from the host cell.
  10. ____ are a part of the outermembrane of a Gram - bacteria (the organism)
    endotoxin
  11. mechanism or pyrogenic response of endotoxins
    • 1. A macrophage ingests a GRAM - bacterium
    • 2. The bacterium is degraded in a vacuole , releasing endotoxins that induce the macrophage to produce cytokines
    • 3. The cytokines are then released into the bloodstream by the macrophages and travel to the hypothalamus of the brain.
    • 4. The cytokines trigger the hypothalamus to produce prostaglandins, which reset the body's thermostat to a higher temperature, producing a fever.
  12. Treatment with antibiotics to Gram ? bacteria can lead to ______ because of ____ and the ____ ____.
    • Gram -
    • Septic shock
    • endotoxins and the pyrogenic response
  13. Steps to Phagocytosis
    • 1. Chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte
    • 2. Ingestion
    • 3. Formation of phagosome
    • 4. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
    • 5. Digestiosn of ingested microbe by enzymes
    • 6. Formation of Residual bodies w/ indigestable material
    • 7. Discharge of waste materials
  14. the scientific study of a desease
    pathology
  15. _______are always present (if you washed all of these away you run the risk of infection) but _____ are only present for a limited time.
    • normal microbiota
    • transient microbiota
  16. A specific disease is caused by a specific orgranism, microorganisms can cause disease
    Kochs postulates
  17. refers to organisms living together
    An example would be normal microbiota and a host
    Symbiosis
  18. one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected
    commensalism
  19. The science that deals with WHEN diseases occur and HOW they are transmitted
    epidemiology
  20. ____is a systemic infection arising from multiplication (growth) of bacteria in blood
    septicemia
  21. the extent of pathogenicity
    virulence
  22. infectious dose for 50% of the test population
    ID50
  23. bacteria in the blood
    bacteremia
  24. toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or other toxins, from a focus of infection
    sepsis
  25. the study of the cause of a disease
    etiology
  26. deaths from notifiable diseases
    mortality
  27. incidence of a specific notifiable disease
    morbidity
  28. In an ___ disease, symptoms develop rapidly
    acute
  29. the lethal dose of a toxin for 50% of the population
    LD50
  30. ______of respiratory tracts are the most frequently used portals of entry for pathogens.
    mucous membranes
  31. Bacteria must ____and do so by_____ or _____.
    Adhere

    fimbriae or glycocalx
  32. Substance that contributes to pathogenicity (diseases causing ability of an organism)
    toxin
  33. Antibodies against a specific toxin
    Antitoxin
  34. The action of an Exotoxin
    • 1. Gram + (most are +) bacterium produces exotoxin, releases it
    • 2. Binding (B) portion of exotoxin (A-B) attaches to host cell receptor
    • 3. Both A-B portions of exotoxin enter host cell via endocytosis
    • 4. Once inside and enclosed in pinched off portion of plasma membrane during pinocytosis, the A-B portiions separate.
    • 5. The active (A) portion begins to alter cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis, while the B portion gets released outside the cell.
  35. Endotoxin mechanism/pyrogenic response
    • 1. Gram - bacterium gets ingested by a macrophage
    • 2. Macrophage produces a vacuole around the bacterium that begins to degrade the bacterium which releases the endotoxins (part of the cell wall),. which in turn induce the macrphage to produce cytokines.
    • 3. Cytokines enter the bloodstream and travel to the hypothalamus of the brain.
    • 4. These cytokines trigger the release of prostaglandins which then reset the body's "thermostat" creating a temperature increase or fever.
  36. The waste products of ____ and ____ can often times cause sickness in humans.
    fungi and protozoa
  37. Phyasical factors of First line of defense is intact____and ____ ___ and their secretions, and normal microbiota.
    The ____consists of tightly packed ____ with _____, a protective protein.
    ___ traps microbes (sticky) and the ____ _______ transports trapped microbes in mucus away from the lungs.
    • skin and mucous membranes
    • skin, cells, keratin
    • mucus , ciliary escalator transports
  38. Phycial factors of first line also include
    • lacrimal apparatus: washes eye
    • Saliva: washes microbes off
    • Urine: flows out
    • Vaginal secretions: flow out
  39. defenses against any pathogen
    Innate immunity (present at birth)
  40. a chemical factor and enzyme in perspiration, tears, saliva, and urine
    Lysozyme
  41. Chemical factors include
    pH, enzymes (lysozyme), the lacrimal apparatus of the eye
  42. Formed elements in the blood include ___ and ___
    Red blood cells and White blood cells
  43. competes with pathogens or alters the environment
    normal microbiota
  44. transports O2 and CO2
    red blood cells
  45. White blood cells include
    • neutrophills (phaocytic)
    • Basophils (release histamines)
    • Eosinophils (kills parasites)
  46. Chemicals released by damaged cells
    • histamine
    • kinins
    • prostaglandins
    • leukotrienes
  47. vasodilation, increased permeability of blood vessels
    histamines and Kinins
  48. intensifies the efffects of histamines and kinin effect
    Prostaglandins
  49. ____ increases permeability of blood vessels phagocytic attachment
    Leukotrienes
  50. the process where phagocytes adhere (stick) to the endothelium
    margination
  51. ____ is when phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells
    diapedesis
  52. serum protein activated in a cascade
    the complement system
  53. opsonization
    the enhancement of phagocytosis by coating the microbe with C3b
  54. increase of blood vessel permeability and chemotaxic attraction of phagocytes
    Inflammation
  55. Bursting of the microbe is called
    cytolysis
  56. Three pathways in the complement system
    Classical, alternative, and Lectin
  57. Classical Pathway of complement activation- 3 steps
    1. antibodies bind to C1 protein and antigen on the microbe

    2. This sets off the complement cascade

    3. This results in opsonization , inflammation, and Cytolysis
  58. Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation
    1. Cellular factors bind to C3 protein and lipid carbohydrates on the microbe

    2. This sets off the complement cascade

    3. This results in opsonization, inflammation, and cytolysis
  59. Lectin Pathway of complement activation
    1. Lectin is removed from the carbohydrate containing mannose

    2. This sets off the complement cascade

    3. This results in opsonization, inflammation, and cytolysis
  60. a protein produced in response to an antigen AND binds to that antigen
    antibody
  61. What are the 3 types of Specific defenses (immuinity?
    Acquired immunity- Developed during an individuals lifetime

    Humoral imminity- involves ANTIBODY produced by B cells

    Cell-mediated immunity- Inovlves T-cells
  62. A substance ie (bacterium) that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells
    Antigen
  63. Globular proteins called immunoglobulins are called ____
    antibodies
  64. clumping or reducing number of infectious units to be dealt with ie bacteria units
    agglutination
  65. 5 types of antibodies
    • IgG- placenta
    • IgM-agglutinates
    • IgA-secretions
    • IgD-immune response
    • IgE-allergic rx, worms
  66. Enhance phagocytosis; neutralize toxins and viruses; crosses placenta and protects fetus and newborn
    IgG antibodies
  67. Agglutinates microbes, first Ab produced in response to infection
    IgM antibodies
  68. In secretions and gives mucosal protection
    IgA antibodies
  69. On B cells, iniitiates immune response
    IgD antibodies
  70. Allergic rx's; lysis of parasitic worms
    IgE antibodies
  71. 4 types of Acquired immunity
    Naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity

    Naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity

    Artificially acquired ACTIVE immunity

    Artificially acquired PASSIVE immunity
  72. Naturally acquired active immunity
    results from an infection
  73. Naturally acquired passive immunity
    Transplacental
  74. Artificially acquired active immunity
    Injection of Antigens Ag (vaccination)
  75. Aritifically acquired passive immunity
    Injection of antibodies Ab
  76. Cell mediated Immunity
    an immune response that does not involve antibodies or complement but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxicT-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
  77. CD4 or ____ cells differentiate into
    ___ and ___. What do they do?
    • Helper T Cells
    • TH1- activate cells related to cell-mediated immunity
    • TH2- activate B cells to produce eosinophils, IgM, and IgE
  78. CD8 or ____ aide in killing____infected cells AND ____ target cells with____ and ____.
    • Cytotoxic T cells
    • virus infected
    • destroy
    • perforin and granenzymes
  79. Delayed-_____ T Cells (TD) are associated with ____ reaction, ___ rejection, and ____ skin test
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Allergic rx
    • Transplant rejection
    • Tuberculin skin test
  80. _____ T cells ( ) turn off immune response when ___ is/are no longer present.
    • suppresor T cells (TS)
    • Ag(s)
  81. ____ is the really important protein ...without it you wouldnt get:
    • Opsonization
    • Inflammation
    • Cytolysis
  82. Reaction of soluble antigens with antibodies
    Precipitation Rxs
  83. involves agglutination of RBC's
    some viruses agglutinate RBC's in vitro
    hemagglutination
  84. 1. Antibody is adsorbed to well
    2. Patient sample is added; complementary antigen binds to antibody.
    3. Enzyme-linked antibody specific for test antigen is added and binds to antigen, forming sandwich
    4. Enzymes substrate is added, and reaction produces color change
    Direct ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)
  85. 1. Antigen is adsorbed to well
    2. Patient serum added; complimentary antibody
    3. Enzyme linked anti HISG added and binds to bound antibody
    4. Enzymes substrate is added, and reaction produces color change.
    Indirect ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
  86. mixing blood with antisera is called
    direct agglutination
  87. Types of hypersensitivity Rx's (response to antigen or allergens)
    Types of Rx's
    1.
    2
    3
    4
    • 1. Anaphylactic
    • 2. Cytotoxic
    • 3. Immune complex
    • 4. Delayed cell mediated or delayed hypersensitiivity
  88. Type 1- _______ reaction involves Ig(?), ___ cells, and/or ___phils.

    Shock is a result of ____ ___.
    • Anaphylactic reaction
    • IgE, mast cells, and or Basophils
    • systemic anaphylaxis
  89. Type 2-____ reaction involve Ig(?) or Ig(?) antibodies
    • Cytotoxic rx
    • IgG or IgM
  90. Type 3-_____ ____ reactions: Antibodies and ____ from _____.
    • Immune complex Rx's
    • Antibodies and Antigens form complexes
  91. Type 4-___ _ ___ or ___ ______: Antigens activate __ that kill ___ cells.
    • delayed cell mediated OR delayed hypersensitivity
    • activate T cells that kill TARGET cells.
  92. _____is due to IgG and IgM antibodies
    Autoimmunity
  93. _____is due to 2 or more exposures to an antigen
    hypersensitivity
  94. ____is due to sensitized T cells
    Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  95. What kind of antibodies does Blood Type A have? Antigens?
    B antibodies and A antigens
  96. Type B blood antibodies and antigens?
    • A antibodies
    • B antigens
  97. Blood type AB antibodies and antigens?
    • no antibodies
    • AB antigens
  98. Type O blood antibodies ? antigens?
    • Antibodies A and B
    • NO antigens
  99. Rh factor and hemolytic disease of newborn
    • 1. Rh+ father and Rh- mother have Rh+ baby #1
    • 2. Rh+ baby antigens transfered to mothers blood during delivery making mother produce Rh antibodies
    • 3. IF second baby is also Rh+, mother's antibodies will cross placenta and damage fetal RBC's
  100. 4 types of Tissue grafts
    • Autografts: tissue from one part of your body to another
    • Isograft: tissue from identical twin
    • Allografts: tissue graft from a close match
    • xenotrasnplant: tissue graft from animal
  101. HIV lead to ______.
    immunosuppression
  102. HIV is contracted through
    direct contact ie blood body fluids
  103. Many drugs (AZT, ddC) that treat HIV do so through stopping ____ and ____.
    DNA synthesis and inhibiting reverse transcriptase
  104. Currently sexually transmitted HIV infection is via _____
    heterosexual contact ~ 85 %

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