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Have drugs been around long?
Atleast 8000 years! Opium, hallucegens (BC) and alcohol
When did opium arive in Australia?
What are the three main classes for Opium users, according to Victorian Premiers Drug Advisory (1899)?
- - Middle class: Menstrual pain, depression
- - Doctors and health professions: Stress from work
- - Chinese immigrants: Leisure
When did the law to prohibit Opium reach Australia?
1905, after Federation
What were the concerns of Opium use?
- Abuse by aboriginals
- Fears would spread to Whites
- Racist backlash to Chinese
LSD and Ecstacy: Both _____ drugs, _____ created in Germany and _____ in Switzerland.
What was the first major political declaration against drugs?
1971: "War on Drugs"
What happened in 1985?
HIV was discovered, a harm minimization approach was formed
The heroine drought in 2000, caused what?
Increase in pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and methamphetamines
$____ billion in economic costs:
$____ Illicit drugs
What are the 7 themes of drug wars?
- 1) Public menace
- 2) Political interest
- 3) Increased crimincal justice response
- 4) Influencial media
- 5) Portrayed 'infectious'
- 6) Need to protect vulnerable target groups
- 7) Aggressive, military terminology
The effect a drug has on someone depends on what?
- The person (age, gender, expectations)
- The drug (how it is administered, the type...)
- The environment (social factor).
Pharmacokinetics vs. Pharmacodynamics
- Pharmacokinetics: What the body does to the drug
- Pharmacodynamics: What the drug does to the body
- Oral: small intestine-->Liver-->Circulation
- Smoked: Mouth/lung lining-->Liver-->Circulation
- IV: Directly into circulation
- Organs with high blood flow first (Brain etc…)
- Fat, muscles and skin later
What is the half life of a drug?
Time for drug in blood to reduce by 50%
________ more likely to be abused (e.g. Cocaine and Nicotine)
Short half life/short action drugs
- Through synapse, many drugs act by mimicking normal neurotransmitters
- occupying receptor sites and sending “false” messages
Define Drug dependence, drug tolerance, drug withdrawal and cross-dependence
- Drug dependence: After period of continual use can become dependant on a drug. Social, psychological and physical dependence
- Drug tolerance: When dependant, less affected by drug/need more to feel effects
- Drug withdrawal: When physically dependant, cessation results in withdrawal. In general withdrawal symptoms have opposite effect of the drug
- Cross-dependence: One substance can take the place of another to continue physical dependence and avoid withdrawal
- Slow down brain and body
- May cause initial high/euphoria
- Small doses: relaxation/drowsiness
- Large doses: can cause loss of consciousness, respiratory inhibition, and even death
- Some appear to cause emotional depression
- Impaired coordination
- E.g. alcohol, heroin, cannabis, benzodiazepines and Volatile (sniffable) substances
What is the active ingredient in Canibus, and what does it do?
- THC is the main active ingredient
- Binds to cannabinoid receptors
- Interferes with normal functioning of brain
- Cerebellum: Affects coordination
- Hippocampus: Affects memory
- Cerebral cortex: Affects thinking
- Opiate receptors – pleasure or pain relief: Endorphins
- Affects dopamine
- Pain relief – Physical and Psychological Overdose risk high
- Common effects
- Feelings of well-being or euphoria
- Pinpoint pupils
- Shallow breathing
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increase the body’s state of arousal
- Accelerate central nervous system
- Small doses: increase awareness and concentration, decrease fatigue and amplify positive moods
- Larger doses: can cause excessive activity, irritability, nervousness, insomnia, delusions and hallucinations (drug-induced psychosis), convulsions, death
- Distort the brain’s perception of reality
- Can cause auditory, tactile, or visual hallucinations
- Include varying degrees of depression or stimulation depending on the substance
True or False: You only need to use heroin once to become addicted
True or False: For dependant drinkers, withdrawal from alcohol can be fatal
After having a break, it’s safe to go back to using a drug at the same level
Is smoking in Australia decreasing?
Who smokes the most?
- Men are more likely to be daily smokers and smoke more cigarettes per week (102 vs 91)
- females were more likely to have ‘never smoked’ (51% vs 60%)
- People aged 20-29 more likely to be daily smokers – 21% (approximately the same for 30-39 and 40-49)
- l60+ age group – 9%
- However, 50-59 age group smoke most cigarettes per week (125)
What are the two main reasons for people quiting smoking?
- Affecting health and fitness
- Costing too much
Is the prevalence rate of illicit drug use increasing?
No, over the period from 2004-2007 recent illicit drug use dropped significantly, especially among 14-19 and 30-39 age groups