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What is Forensic Science (forensics)?
The application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system
What are some Real world DNA fingerprinting Applications?
Human Remains Identity
What are the 6 basic concepts in physical evidence?
The division of matter
Classification or Individualization
What are the 2 fundamental scientific principles for analysis of forensic evidence?
Divisible matter- prior event before transfer
Transfer matter- sharing or exchanging of matter when crime is commited
What is identification?
Answers what it is (type of collected evidence)
What is classification?
Categorizing of collected evidence
What is individualization?
When was the first time DNA evidence was used to convict a person in the US?
How much of DNA is used for forensics?
What is genetics?
The study of gene variation and inheritance
What are alleles?
An alternative form of a gene or a trait or a marker
What is a locus?
the site where a molecule of a gene/a DNA sequence resides on the chromosome
What is a genetic marker?
A segment of DNA with identifiable physical location on a chromosome
What is genetic marker frequency?
The frequency of a given marker in a population
What is genetic concordance?
The measure of strength of marker evidence
What does linkage disequilibrium explain?
Non-random association of alleles at two or more loci
How is in vitro DNA replicated?
What does RFLP do?
It is one of the techniques of DNA typing
What is HLA-DQ alpha, HLA-DQA1 and how are the results shown?
Human leukocyte antigen locus
Marker found in human chromosome 6
Shown in strip reverse dot blot
What is AmpliType PM+DQA1 (polymarker)?
Modified system of HLA-DQA1
Uses polymarkers to increase the power of discrimination (using PCR)
What are the sources of DNA in human cells?
Mitochondrial DNA (autonomous circle of DNA)
mtDNA- (inherited from maternal side only)
What is hetroplasmy?
A mixture of mtDNA type
What are samples for mt DNA?
What is the advantage of multiplex PCR?
10 or more STR loci can be simultaneously amplified
Test One DNA Forensics
Test One DNA forensics (Chapters one-five)