biology virus test

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Author:
Pharynlleonard
ID:
75928
Filename:
biology virus test
Updated:
2011-03-30 16:07:36
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virus bacteria
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biology 9th grade
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  1. when were viruses discovered ?
    seen in 1935
  2. what is the basic structure of a virus?
    nucleic acid , capsid , tail sheath , bacteriaphage
  3. why are viruses not living ?
    • -cannot reproduce without a host cell
    • -not made of cells
    • -do not require energy
    • -do not grow and develope
  4. why do some think that they are alive ?
    they can evolve
  5. what are the possible shapes of viruses
    • polyhedrial
    • helical
    • spherical
  6. viruses capsids allow them to -
    attach only to specific cells
  7. What are some common viruses?
    • -common cold
    • -flu
    • -polio
    • -rabies
    • -hpv
    • -papiloma virus
  8. What is the lytic cycle?
    -get in , take over, destroy the cell
  9. What are the steps in the lytic cycle ?
    • 1. attachment ( attaches to the cell)
    • 2. injection(DNA is incerted into the cell )
    • 3. Take over(enzymes chop up the host)
    • 4.Manufacture (cell produces viral capsid & DNA)
    • 5. Assembly
    • 6. Release (an enzyme opens cell membrane then virus comes out)
  10. What is the lysogenic cycle ?
    you get it you have it forever
  11. What are the steps in the lysogenic cycle?
    • 1. Attachment
    • 2. injects
    • 3.provirus fromation (viral DNA attaches to the host cell DNA * cell carries on normal functions
    • 4.Host cell Reproduction ( copies virus DNA into all new daughter cells)
    • 5. Activation(a trigger causes the virus DNA to activate)
    • 6. Take over
    • 7. Manufacture
    • 8. Assembly
    • 9. Release

    ex : HIV, Herpes, Hepititus, Chicken Pox
  12. What are retroviruses ?
    • RNA viruses
    • * RNA-> DNA
    • reverse transcriptase enzyme

    ex: HIV
  13. How can you prevent viral infections ?
    • Vaccination
    • * produce memory cells
  14. Interferon -
    produced by infected cells - signals uninfected cells to set up a protective barrier
  15. * white blood cells
  16. What are the two kingdoms of bacteria?
    • - archeabacteria
    • - eubacteria
  17. What are the general characteristics of bacteria
    prokaryotic / unicellular / cell walls
  18. Eubacteria -
    • Cell wall
    • peptidoglycan (protein / sugar)
    • Modern Bacteria - infect us
  19. what is the structure of DNA ?
    Flagella, cilia, cell membrane, pilus ( reproduction) cell wall, Capsule, Ribosomes, DNA (circular) plasmids (small pieces of DNA)
  20. What are some bacterial shapes?
    • coccus (spherical)
    • Bacillus ( rod shaped)
    • Spyrilla ( spiral )
  21. Example of coccus bacteria
    strepococcus, staphlococcus
  22. example of Bacillus
    e-coli
  23. example of spyrilla
    sphyilis
  24. what are the life processes?
    movement , gas exchange, nutrition, reproduction
  25. what does obligate mean ?
    must be ...
  26. what does faculative mean ?
    perfer
  27. how do bacteria move?
    contact transfer - cilia-flagella-gliding
  28. Types of Gas exchange...
    • aerobic- requires oxygen
    • anaerobic- doesnot require oxygen
  29. Bacterias nutrition
    • photosynthetic autotroph - uses light and co2 for energy
    • chemosynthetic autotrophs - nuses chemical and co2 for energy
    • ex thermal vent bacteria

    heterotrophic- eat things for energy
  30. types of reproduction :
    • asexually - binary fission
    • sexual - transfer of plasmids
    • *conjugation
    • *utalizes a pilus to transfer plasmids
  31. What are endospores?
    - a protective "structure" cantaining DNA and a protein coat
  32. when are endospores produced?
    when the bacteria is in harsh conditions- too hot or cold- too dry- no food
  33. whats is an autoclave ?
    a pressure cooker to destroy bacteria - medical use
  34. What are the benefits of bacteria?
    help digest food and produce vitamins-intestines- Decomposers- saprophites- Nitrogen Fixation , Food flavoring , antibiotics,transgenic bacteria
  35. Nitrogen Fixation
    -soil bacteria that convert n2 to no3
  36. what are the characteristics of archae bacteria ?`
    thrive in very harsh conditions- have cell walls made of psedomurine
  37. what is psedomurine
    carbohydrate / protein
  38. thermophilic
    heat lovers
  39. acidophilic
    acid lovers
  40. halophilic
    salt lovers
  41. methanogens
    bacteia that lives in digestive systems of large mammals
  42. what are some harmful effects of bacteria?
    • eat you
    • toxins
    • exotoxins
    • endotoxins
  43. howdo you control bacteria?
    wash well need food moisture appeophate tempretures

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