MCB Exam 3-D

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  1. Ex of normal microbiota of upper resp tract that are also opportunitistic pathogens (3)
    • Haemophilis influenzae: can colonize the nose
    • Staphyloccous aureus: normal microbiota in some ppl
    • Diptheroids: can colonize the nose & nasal cavity
  2. Streptococcal Respiratory Diseases
    aka strep throat

    What org causes it
    VF
    How get it
    S&S
    • Group A streptococci (S. pyogenes) (SPY)- a flesh eating bacteria
    • VF: M proteins (antiphagocytic), hyaluronic acid, capsule, streptokinases, C5a peptidase, pyrogenic toxins, streptlysins
    • Enter by person inhaling droplets
    • S&S: sore throat, diff to swallow, may become scarlet or rheumatic fever
  3. VF of S. pyogenes
    • M proteins- antiphagocytic
    • Hyaluronic acid
    • Capsule
    • Streptokinases
    • C5a peptidase
    • Pyrogenic toxins
    • Streptlysins- toxins it produces which kill red & white blood cells & platelets
  4. Diphtheria organism is ________ _________
    Describe it
    • Cornybacterium diptheriae
    • G+ bacterium
    • Facultative anaerobe
  5. Diptheria
    How & who gets it:
    VF:
    S&S:
    Trtmt:
    Vaccine:
    • Enters via resp droplets or skin contact
    • Susceptibility- Immunocompromised ppl
    • VF: its toxin prevents polypep synthesis & causes cell death
    • S&S: sore throat, oozing greyish fluid that hardens into pseudomembrane that can obstruct airrways; "bull throat"
    • Trtmt: give antitoxin & antibiotic
    • Immunization: DPT trio
  6. DPT immunization:
    • Diptheria
    • Pertussis (whooping cough)
    • Tetanus
  7. Common cold
    What org causes it
    How get it
    Where infection is
    S&S
    • Rhinoviruses most common, but many others
    • Enter via coughing/sneezing, fomites (inanimate object carring virus)
    • Infects upper resp system
    • S&S: sneezing, running nose, congestion, sore throat, malaise, cough; but NO fever
  8. Ex bacterial infections of lower resp system
    • Bacterial pneumonia
    • Legionnaire's disease
    • Pertussis (whooping cough)
    • Tuberculosis
  9. 5 Types Pneumonia
    • Can be categorized by type of org causing or affected region:
    • 1. Bacterial pneumonia- most serious & most common
    • 2. Pneumonococcal pneumonia
    • 3. Mycoplasmal Pneumonia (Primary Atypical Pneumonia)- caused by Mycobacterium
    • 4. Lobar pneumonia- involves entire lobes of lungs
    • 5. Nosocomial pneumonia- from hospital
  10. Pneumonia
    Inflammation of lungs w/fluid filled alveoli & bronchioles
  11. Pneumococcal Pneumonia
    What org causes
    How & who gets it
    VF
    Incubation
    S&S
    Trtmt
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Enters via inhalation
    • Immunocompromised ppl- very common AIDS ppl
    • VF: Adhesions, capsule, pneumolysin
    • Incubation: 1-3 dys
    • S&S: fever, chills, congestion, cough, chest pain, short rapid breathing
    • Trtmt: Penicillin
  12. Primary Atypical (Mycoplasmal) Pneumonia
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    How & who gets it
    Incubation
    VF
    S&S
    Trmt
    • Enters via nasal secretions of ppl close contact
    • Susceptibility: HS & college students
    • VF: adhesion protein
    • Incubation: 1-4 wks
    • S&S: may have none; fever, malaise, sore throat, excessive sweating
    • Trmt: Tetracycline, erythromycin
  13. Legionellosis (Legionnaire's Disease)
    Legionella pneumophila

    How & who gets it
    S&S
    Diagnoses
    Trtmt
    Prevention
    • Enters via inhale vesicles that are filled w/it; associated w/cooling towers
    • Susceptibility: elderly, smokers, immonocomp ppl
    • S&S: typical pneumonia symptoms; maybe complications of GI tract, CNS, liver, & kidneys
    • Diagnosis: org's presence or antibodies made
    • Trtmt: erythromycin
    • Prevention: reduce it's presence in water
  14. TB
    (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Susceptibility:
    VF:
    S&S:
    Diagnosis:
    • Susceptibility: immonocomp ppl, leading killer in HIV+ ppl
    • VF: mycolic acid in cell wall; cord factor (surface glycolipid which resists phagocytosis) for it to cause disease
    • S&S: initally minor cough/fever; later diff breathing, chest pain, wheezing, coughing blood
    • Diagnosis: skin test but doesn't tell if person was simply exposed or vaccinated
  15. Inhalation Anthrax
    Bacillus anthracis

    How get it
    VF
    S&S
    Diagnosis
    Prevention
    • Inhalation of endospores
    • VF: capsule, toxin
    • S&S: initial cold/flu-like, progresses to severe coughing, diff breathing, shock, death
    • Diagnosis: bacteria in sputum (spit w/phlegm)
    • Prevention: vaccine for military, health care workers
  16. Influenza-Types A & B- 2 strains are:
    Hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA) strains which mutate often
  17. Antigenic drift & antigenic shift mutations of influenza virus
    8 RNA pieces of virus are rearranged & recombined w/each other to make new combinations
  18. 2 Ex of fungal infections of Lower Resp System
    Histoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia
  19. Histoplasmosis
    Histoplasmosis capsulatum

    Abt it:
    How get it
    Epidemiology
    Trmt
    • Most common fungal systemic disease
    • Soil---> human; children
    • Eastern US & parts of Africa, Central/S America
    • Trmt: Amphotericin B
  20. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)
    Pneumocystis jiroveci (prev P. carinii)

    How & who gets it
    • Inhale droplets containing the fungus
    • Immnocomp, esp AIDS ppl

Card Set Information

Author:
bkheath
ID:
75935
Filename:
MCB Exam 3-D
Updated:
2011-03-29 21:35:33
Tags:
Microbial Diseases Respiratory System
Folders:

Description:
Microbial Diseases of Respiratory Tract System
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