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(Type S Conditioning)
some type of stimulus is present and elicits a response
(Type R behavior)
- Influence by the consequences or result of a behavior
- response followed by a stimulus that will effect the frequency of response
- a behavior and a reinforcer are required
Thorndike's Law of Effect
- All things being equal, any behvaior followed by a satisfying state of affairs will increase in frequency.
- All things being equal, any behavior followed by an annoying sttae of affairs will decrease in frequency.
the frequency of repsonse before the introduction of a reinforcer
differential reinforcement (shift what is being reinforced) of successive approximations
A behvaior is followed by a negative stimulus (does not matter if it was intentional or not) that decreases the frequency of behavior
- the removal of reinforcement for a previously reinforced response
- results in a decrease in the rate of responding and returns to the operant level
- physical punishment
- to be effective
- ~follow unwanted behavior immediately
- ~be strong enough to deter behavior
- ~ consistent and fair
- may have negative consequences
- sets the occassion for reinforcement
- stimuli that are similar to the original Sd will also elicit responding through stimulus generalization
related to survival, require no previous learning to have significance
acquire reinforcing properties though being paired with primary reinforcers
do not depend on a particular emotional state
situation in which one repsonse brings the organism into contact with that stimuli
Continual System of Reinforcement
reward all reponses each time
only reinforce certain responses
- reinforcement is provided for the first responce that occurs ater some period of fixed time has elapsed.
- has the slowest rate of responding
- Reinforcement is provided after a fixed number fo responses
- Leads to a steady rate of responding characterized by post-reinforcement responding
- second highest rate of responding
reinforcement is provided for the first response that occurs after a varying interval of time.
- reinforcement is provided after a varying number of responses
- has the highest rate of responding
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
All partial reinforcement schedules lead to an increase resistance to extinction