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the process of cell division
**it is an inherent adaptive mechanism for cell replacement when old cells die or additional cells are needed.
the process of specialization whereby new cells acquire the structural, microscopic, and functional characteristics of the cells they replace.
**the better the differentiation of a neoplasm, the slower its rate of growth and the more completely it retains the functional capabilities found in its normal counterparts.
composed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the normal counterpart both in terms of structure and function but have lost the ability to control cell proliferation
are less differentiated and have lost the ability to control both cell proliferation and differentiation.
a form of programmed cell death that eliminates senescent cells, DNA, and damaged or unwanted cells
**a malignant neoplasm can not only result from excessive and uncontrolled proliferation, but also from evasion of apoptosis
made up of the transformed or neoplastic cells of a tumor, determines its behavior and is the component for which the tumor is named.
Supporting nonneoplastic stromal tissue
is made up of connective tissue, extracellular matrix, and blood vessels.
*it is essential to the growth of the tumor since it carries the blood supply and provides support for the parenchymal tumor cells
from the Greek term for a "swelling," onkos, refers to the study or science of neoplasms
deals with neoplastic disorders in the clinical setting, primarily in terms of diagnosis and treatment.
Benign tumors usually are named by adding the suffix??????
Benign epithelial neoplasm of glandular tissue is called???
Benign tumor arising in fibrous tissue is called????
What term is used to designate a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue origin????
Malignancies that originate from glandlike structures is ????
Malignancies that originate from squamous cells are called???
squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin are called???
Malignant cancer of fibrous tissue is called???
malignant tumor composed of chondrocytes is a ???
benign microscopic or macroscopic fingerlike projections that grow on any surface.
a growth that projects from a mucosal surface, such as the intestine.
**some malignant tumors also appear as polyps.
As the growth of the primary solid tumor progresses, cells detach from the original tumor mass, invade the surrounding tissue, and enter the blood and lymph system to spread to distant sites.
Cell characteristics for Benign neoplasms
Well-defferentiated cells that resemble cells inthe tissue of origin
Cell characteristics for Malignant neoplasms
cells are undifferentiated, with anaplasia and atypical structure that often bears little resemblance to cells in the tissue of origin.
Rate of Growth for Benign neoplasms
Usually progressive and slow; may come to a standstill or regress
Rate of Growth for Malignant neoplasms
Variable and depends on level of differentiation; the more undifferentiated the cells, the more rapid the rate of growth
Mode of growth for Benign
Grows by expansion without invading the surrounding tissues; usually encapsulated
Mode of growth for Malignant
Grows by invasion, sending out processes that infiltrate the surrounding tissues
Metastasis for Benign
Does not spread by metastasis
Metastasis for Malignant
Gains access to blood and lymph channels to metastasize to other areas of the body
"form backward" to an earlier dedifferentiated state.
*Malignant neoplasms that are composed of poorly idfferentiated or undifferentiated cells.
**differentiated cancer cells
Both the cells and nuclei display variations in size and shape.
**undifferentiated cancer cells
malignant cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes.
-may be abnormal due to insertions, deletions, amplifications, or translocations of parts of their arms
in vitro cell cultures
cell growth in test tubes or culture dishes which their first containers used for these cultures were made of glass.
cell density-dependent inhibition
normal cells that are grown in culture display this in which they stop dividing after the cells reach a particular density
*sometimes referred to contact inhibition since cells stop growing when they come into contact with each other
normal cells with the exception of hematopoietic cells, will not grow and proliferate unless they are attached to a solid surface such as the ECM
normal epithelial cells become detached and they undergo a type of apoptosis due to not having a "home"
cell to cell communication
a feature that may contribute to the growth and survival of cancer cells.
*impaired cell to cell communication may interfere with formation of intercellular connections and responsiveness to membrane derived signals
used to describe the development of a secondary tumor in a location distant from the primary tumor.
seeding of cancer cells means???
seeding of cancer cells into body cavities occurs when a tumor erodes and sheds cells into these spaces.
**usually the peritoneal cavity common with ovarian cancers is involved but the pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and joint spaces may be involved.
used to describe the initial lymph node to which the primary tumor drains
regulate the trafficking of leukocytes and other cell types under a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis
Tumor cells have been shown to express functional.....????
chemokine receptors, which can sustain cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and survival and promote organ-specific localization of metastasis
-normal genes that become cancer-causing oncogenes if mutated.
*cancer-associated underactivity genes
-being less active creates an environment in which cancer is promoted
Activation of oncogene can increase......???
The RB gene was isolated in studies involving a malignant tumor of the eye.
**the tumor occurs in a hereditary and sporadic form and becomes evident in early life
a third category of genes that do not encode proteins
-Instead, the products of these genes consist of a single RNA strand that serves to regulate gene expression
involve changes in the patterns of gene expression without a change in the DNA
*they silence genes, such as tumor-suppressor genes
involve silencing of a gene or genes
*may also be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer
What are the two best know tumor-suppressor genes???
p53 and retinoblastoma (RB) genes
mutations in the p53 gene can occur
in virtually every type of cancer including lung, breast, and colon cancer
*acts as a molecular policeman that prevents the propagation of genetically damaged cells
*located on the short arm of chromosome 17, the p53 gene normally senses DNA damage and assists in DNA repair by causing arrest of the cell cycle in G1 and inducing DNA repair or initiating apoptosis in a cell that cannot be repaired.
proteins involved in the signaling pathways that control the action of growth factors exert their effects through enzymes
the process by which carcinogenic agents cause normal cells to become cancer cells is hypothesized to be a multistep divided into three stages which are....???
involves the exposure of cells to appropriate doses of a carcinogenic agent that makes them susceptible to malignant transformation
*agents can be chemical, physical, or biologic and produce irreversible changes in the genome of a previously normal cell
involves the induction of unregulated accelerated growth in already initiated cells by various chemicals and growth factors
*this step is reversible if promoter substance is removed
They can initiate and promote neoplastic transformation
process whereby tumor cells acquire malignant phenotype changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies, and increased karyotypic instability
involves chromosome 9 and 22 and the formation of an abnormal fusion protein that promotes cell proliferation
immune surveillance hypothesis
postulates that the immune system plays a central role in resistance against the development of tumors
immunologic mechanisms provide a means for
the detection, classification, and prognostic evaluation of cancers and a potential method of treatment
a cancer treatment modality designed to heighten the patient's general immune responses so as to increase tumor destruction.
most tumor cells have molecular configurations that can be specifically recognized by immune T cells or by antibodies.
unique tumor-specific antigens
found only on tumor cells
tumor -associated antigens
found on tumor cells and normal cells
The immune system has the potential for eradicated cancer cells including...
- *T and B lymphocytes
- *Natural killer cells
what is the T cell responsible for ??
the most important host responses for controlling the growth of antigenic tumor cells, and is resbonsible for direct killing of tumor cells and for activation of other components of the immune system
an agent capable of causing cancer
Direct-Acting Alkylating Agents
Anticancer drugs (cyclophosphamide, cispatin, busulfan)
Polycyclic and Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- Tabacco combustion (cigarette smoke)
- Animal fat in broiled and smoked meats
- Vinyl chloride
Aromatic Amine and Azo Dye
- Aniline dyes
Naturally Occurring Carcinogens
- Aflatoxin B1
- Betel nuts
Nitrosamines and Amides
Formed in gastrointestinal tract from nitro-stable amines and nitrates used in preserving processed meats and other foods
- Chromium, nickel, and other metals when volatilized and inhaled in industrial settings
- Insecticides, fungicides
- Polychlorinated biphenyls
documented in atomic bomb survivors, in patients diagnostically exposed, and in industrial workers, scientists, and physicians who are exposed during employment.
emits relatively low-energy rays that do not deeply penetrate the skin.
*association between sunlight and the development of skin cancer
*there is a higher incidence in light-complexioned individuals who lack the ultraviolet-filtering skin pigment melanin.
onte that can induce cancer
- *HPV (human papilloma virus)
- *Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
- *Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
- *Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)
cancer related fatigue may be ...???
an early symptom of malignant disease and has been reported by as many as 40% of patients at the time of diagnosis.
What are the three most common endocrine syndromes associated with cancer ????
- inappropriate ADH secretion
- Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production
antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of tumor.
*used for screening, establishing prognosis, monitoring treatment, and detecting recurrent disease
- Human Chronic Gonadotropin
- a hormone normally produced by the placenta
*gestational trophoblastic tumors.
*germ cell cancer of tstis
Fetal yolk sac and gastrointestinal structures early in fetal life.
Associated Cancers: Primary liver cancers; germ cell cancer of the testis
*Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Embryonic tissues in gut, pancreas, and liver
Associated Cancers: Colorectal cancer and cancers of the pancreas, lung, and stomach
Hormone (Tumor Markers)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine) and metabolites
Hormone produced by thyroid parafollicular cells
Associated Cancers: Thyroid Cancer
Catecholamine and metabolites
Hormones produced by chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland
Associated Cancers: Pheochromocytoma and related tumors
Specific Proteins (Tumor Markers)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Abnormal immunoglobulin produced by neoplastic cells
Associated Cancers: Multiple myeloma
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Produced by the epithelial cells lining the acini and ducts of the prostate
Associated Cancers: Prostate cancer
Mucins and Other Glycoproteins
Produced by mullerian cells of ovary
Associated cancers: Ovarian cancer
Produced by alimentary tract epithelium
Associated cancer: Cancer of the pancreas, and colon
Cluster of Differentiation
Present on leukocytes
Associated cancer: Used to determine the type and level of differentiation of leukocytes involved in different types of leukemia and lymphoma
Grading of Tumors
involves the microscopic examination of cancer cells to determine their level of differentiation and the number of mitoses.
*the closer the tumor cells resemble comparable normal tissue cells, both morphologically and functionally, the lower the grade
Clinical staging of cancers
uses methods to determine the extent and spread of the disease.
*useful in determining the choice of treatment for individual patients, estimating prognosis, and comparing the results of different treatment regimens.
- Radiation Therapy
- Hormone and Antihormone Therapy
- Targeted Therapy