Anatomy Chapter 25
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Anatomy Chapter 25
Circulatory System, Part 1
What specialty in medicins focuses on blood?
Which of the four primary tissue types is blood?
When blood is centrifuged three layers form. List them.
plasma, leukocytes & platelets, erythrocytes
List the three major functions of blood.
transportation, regulation & protection
How does the blood help protect the body?
immunity & clotting
List the formed elements of the blood.
erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets
What specialty in medicine deals with the heart?
What are the two circuits of the cardiovascular system?
pulmonary & systemic
Which side of the heart pumps blood in the pulmonary circuit?
Which side of the heart pumps blood in the systemic circuit?
Approximately how large is the heart?
the size of a clenched fist
Where is the heart located?
left of the body midline, posterior to the sternum in the mediastinum
What is the base of the heart?
posterosuperior surface (formed primarily by the left atrium)
What is the apex of the heart?
anteroinferiorly (inferior conical end)
What fibrous serous sac surrounds the heart?
What is the outer, tough, dense connective tissue layer of the sac surrounding the heart?
What is the inner portion of the sac surrounding the heart?
What layer of the serous pericardium lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium?
What layer of the serous pericardium covers the outside of the heart?
What is the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium?
List the three layers of the heart wall.
epicardium, myocardium & endocardium
What layer of the heart is a serous membrane?
What layer of the heart is composed of cardiac muscle?
Whay layer of the heart is composed of a simple squamous epithelium?
How many chambers make up the heart?
What are the two superior chambers of the heart that receive blood returning from the body and the lungs?
What are the two inferior chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the body?
What relatively deep depression lies between the atria and teh ventricles of the heart?
What depressions lie between the ventricles of the heart?
anterior & posterior interventricular sulcus
What structure composed of dense irregular connective tissue lies between the atria and ventricles of the heart?
The right atrium of the heart receives blood from what circuit?
What three vessels empty into the right atrium?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava & coronary sinus
What structure separates the right and left atria of the heart?
What separates the right atrium and right ventricle?
right atrioventricular valve
What prevents blood from returning to the right atrium as the right centricle contracts?
right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve)
What structure separates the right and left ventricles of the heart?
What nipple-like structures project from the wall of the right ventricle?
What structures anchor the tricuspid valve to the walls of the right ventricle and prevent it from everting into the right atrium?
What valve prevents blood from returning to the right ventricle as that venticle relaxes?
What blood vessels carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart?
What separates the left atrium from the left ventricle?
left atrioventricular opening
What structure prevents blood from returning to the left atrium as the left ventricle contracts?
What structure anchor the mitral valve to the walls of the left ventricle and prevent it from everting into the left atrium?
What nipple-like structures project from the walls of the left ventricle?
What structure prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle as that ventricle relaxes?
What division of the nervous system innervates the heart and influences the heart's function?
autonomic nervous system
What levels of the spinal cord give rise to the nerve that innervate the heart?
Through the branches of what nerve does the parasympathetic division of the ANS innervate the heart?
What system of arteries, capillaries, and veins supplies the heart with blood?
What arteries arise from the ascending aorta to supply the heart with blood?
What branch of the right coronary artery supplies the right border of the heart?
What branch of the right coronary artery supplies the ventricles on the posterior side of the heart?
posterior interventricular artery
What branch of the left coronary artery supplies the anterior walls of the ventricles?
anterior interventricular artery
What branch of the left coronary artery supplies the left atrium and left ventricle?
What is a communication between or calescence of blood vessels?
What is circulation of blood established through enlargement of minor vessels with those of adjacent parts when a major vein or artery is functionally impaired (as by obstruction)?
What vein in the coronary citculation lies in the anterior interventricular sulcus and the left side of the AV sulcus?
great cardiac vein
What vein in the coronary circulation lies in the posterior interventricular sulcus?
middle cardiac vein
What vein in the coronary circulation runs along side the right marginal artery and lies in the right portion of the AV sulcus?
small cardiac vein
What large vein lies in the AV sulcus on the posterior side of the heart and drains into the right atrium?
Of the three formed elements of the blood, which is not made up of cells?