Anatomy Chapter 25

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LaizyDaizy79
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76040
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Anatomy Chapter 25
Updated:
2011-04-11 23:00:41
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Human Anatomy
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Circulatory System, Part 1
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  1. What specialty in medicins focuses on blood?
    hematology
  2. Which of the four primary tissue types is blood?
    connective tissue
  3. When blood is centrifuged three layers form. List them.
    plasma, leukocytes & platelets, erythrocytes
  4. List the three major functions of blood.
    transportation, regulation & protection
  5. How does the blood help protect the body?
    immunity & clotting
  6. List the formed elements of the blood.
    erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets
  7. What specialty in medicine deals with the heart?
    cardiology
  8. What are the two circuits of the cardiovascular system?
    pulmonary & systemic
  9. Which side of the heart pumps blood in the pulmonary circuit?
    right side
  10. Which side of the heart pumps blood in the systemic circuit?
    left side
  11. Approximately how large is the heart?
    the size of a clenched fist
  12. Where is the heart located?
    left of the body midline, posterior to the sternum in the mediastinum
  13. What is the base of the heart?
    posterosuperior surface (formed primarily by the left atrium)
  14. What is the apex of the heart?
    anteroinferiorly (inferior conical end)
  15. What fibrous serous sac surrounds the heart?
    pericardium
  16. What is the outer, tough, dense connective tissue layer of the sac surrounding the heart?
    fibrous pericardium
  17. What is the inner portion of the sac surrounding the heart?
    serous pericardium
  18. What layer of the serous pericardium lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium?
    parietal layer
  19. What layer of the serous pericardium covers the outside of the heart?
    visceral layer
  20. What is the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium?
    pericardial cavity
  21. List the three layers of the heart wall.
    epicardium, myocardium & endocardium
  22. What layer of the heart is a serous membrane?
    epicardium
  23. What layer of the heart is composed of cardiac muscle?
    myocardium
  24. Whay layer of the heart is composed of a simple squamous epithelium?
    endocardium
  25. How many chambers make up the heart?
    4
  26. What are the two superior chambers of the heart that receive blood returning from the body and the lungs?
    atria
  27. What are the two inferior chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the body?
    ventricles
  28. What relatively deep depression lies between the atria and teh ventricles of the heart?
    coronary sulcus
  29. What depressions lie between the ventricles of the heart?
    anterior & posterior interventricular sulcus
  30. What structure composed of dense irregular connective tissue lies between the atria and ventricles of the heart?
    fibrous skeleton
  31. The right atrium of the heart receives blood from what circuit?
    systemic circuit
  32. What three vessels empty into the right atrium?
    superior vena cava, inferior vena cava & coronary sinus
  33. What structure separates the right and left atria of the heart?
    interatrial septum
  34. What separates the right atrium and right ventricle?
    right atrioventricular valve
  35. What prevents blood from returning to the right atrium as the right centricle contracts?
    right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve)
  36. What structure separates the right and left ventricles of the heart?
    interventricular septum
  37. What nipple-like structures project from the wall of the right ventricle?
    papillary muscles
  38. What structures anchor the tricuspid valve to the walls of the right ventricle and prevent it from everting into the right atrium?
    chordae tendineae
  39. What valve prevents blood from returning to the right ventricle as that venticle relaxes?
    pulmonary valve
  40. What blood vessels carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart?
    pulmonary veins
  41. What separates the left atrium from the left ventricle?
    left atrioventricular opening
  42. What structure prevents blood from returning to the left atrium as the left ventricle contracts?
    mitral valve
  43. What structure anchor the mitral valve to the walls of the left ventricle and prevent it from everting into the left atrium?
    chordae tendineae
  44. What nipple-like structures project from the walls of the left ventricle?
    papillary muscle
  45. What structure prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle as that ventricle relaxes?
    aortic valve
  46. What division of the nervous system innervates the heart and influences the heart's function?
    autonomic nervous system
  47. What levels of the spinal cord give rise to the nerve that innervate the heart?
    T1 - T5
  48. Through the branches of what nerve does the parasympathetic division of the ANS innervate the heart?
    vagus
  49. What system of arteries, capillaries, and veins supplies the heart with blood?
    coronary circulation
  50. What arteries arise from the ascending aorta to supply the heart with blood?
    coronary arteries
  51. What branch of the right coronary artery supplies the right border of the heart?
    marginal artery
  52. What branch of the right coronary artery supplies the ventricles on the posterior side of the heart?
    posterior interventricular artery
  53. What branch of the left coronary artery supplies the anterior walls of the ventricles?
    anterior interventricular artery
  54. What branch of the left coronary artery supplies the left atrium and left ventricle?
    circumflex artery
  55. What is a communication between or calescence of blood vessels?
    anastomose
  56. What is circulation of blood established through enlargement of minor vessels with those of adjacent parts when a major vein or artery is functionally impaired (as by obstruction)?
    collateral circulation
  57. What vein in the coronary citculation lies in the anterior interventricular sulcus and the left side of the AV sulcus?
    great cardiac vein
  58. What vein in the coronary circulation lies in the posterior interventricular sulcus?
    middle cardiac vein
  59. What vein in the coronary circulation runs along side the right marginal artery and lies in the right portion of the AV sulcus?
    small cardiac vein
  60. What large vein lies in the AV sulcus on the posterior side of the heart and drains into the right atrium?
    coronary sinus
  61. Of the three formed elements of the blood, which is not made up of cells?
    platelets

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