Developmental and vascular Lung Disease- Semester 1 Mini 3 Pathology

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Developmental and vascular Lung Disease- Semester 1 Mini 3 Pathology
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2011-03-29 21:15:26
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Ross mini semester Pathology Development Vascular Lung Disease
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Development and Vascular Lung Disease
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  1. What are examples Strutural Congential abnormalities?
    • Agensis
    • Aplasia
    • Hypoplasia (not common)
    • Tracheal, bronchi and vascualr abnomalies
    • stenosis (common)
    • tracheo esophageal fistula (gagging bad for lung- can destroy lung, needs to be corrected
  2. What are examples of Congenital Cysts?
    Detachment of the primitive foregut

    They are mostly Bronhogenic: lined by bronchial type epithelium and contain mucinous secreation

    infection abscess
  3. What are examples of Bronchopulmonary sequestration?
    Lung lobes or segment without connection to the airways and with blood supply from the acortic brances not from the arteries

    such as extralobar or intra lobar masses
  4. What is Extralobar Mean?
    Mediastinal mass
  5. what does intralobar mean?
    Mass within the lung parencyma


    Can be mistaken for cancer
  6. How common is Hypoplasia and what does it mean?
    Very common

    - very small lung
  7. What are some of the feature of Congenital Cycsts?
    • Detached frgament of primitive forgut
    • often located in hilum or middle mediastinum
    • Bronchogenic lined by epithelum and contain mucinous secreation
    • looks like cancer but not
    • Infection--> abscess
  8. What is Atelectasis?
    Refers to incomplete expansion of the lung or to collapse of previosuly inflated lung substance
  9. reduces oxygenation and predisposes to infection
  10. What are the types of Atelectasis?
    • 1. Resorption- caused by complete abstruction- collapse distal to point of obstruction
    • -Can be caused by asthama and chronic bronchitis

    2.Compressive-- caused by fluid or air in the pleural cavity-- Pneumotrhoax (leaking lung air rushs in from outside)-pushs lung down

    3. Patchy--not important
  11. Where does the mediastinum shit if resoprtion Ateclectasis?
    towards effective side
  12. Where do the mediastinum shit in compression?
    air in plura space, shift to opposite side
  13. If you see blood in the lung what do you think?
    Atelectasis
  14. What are the cuases of Pumonary Edema?
    • Hemodynamic disturbances
    • Hemodynamic Causes
    • Microvascular injury--> ARDS
  15. Hemodynamic distrubances--what is it?
    Increased capillary hydrostatic fluid, or incrase in microvasuclar injury with cap permeability:ARDS
  16. What are hemodynamic cuases of edema?
    • Hydrostatic pressure as in L. Heart failure
    • Heart failure
    • fibroisis
    • Hypoalbuminemia--Liverdeagae bec of liver disfunction
  17. What are example of microvascular injury?
    • ARD
    • infections
    • gases aspiration
    • drugs
    • heroin
    • paraquat
    • shock
    • trauma
  18. What is ARDs?
    • Adults resoportory Distress syndrmoe- diffuce alveolar caps damage, pumlmonary edema
    • 50% mortality rate
  19. What are some of the features of ARDS?
    • Diffuce alveolar caps damage
    • life threating resp insufficiency
    • cyanosis and severe aterial hypozemia
    • may progress to organ falure
    • resistant to Oxygen therpy
    • severe pulmomary edema, hyaline membrane
    • severe infection gastirci aspiration
    • O2 toxicity
    • septic shock
    • trauma
    • association with shock and DIC

    Can be found in alcholoics
  20. What would you in a histo seciton for pumnoary edema if chronic
    See pick fluid in Alveoli=Pumonary Edema

    If chronic you can see brown segement by dying RBC which are picked up by marcrophages
  21. What is a pumonary Embolism?
    • Almost always thrmoboemoblus
    • 95% arise in deep veins of the legs

    Large emboli-- sudden death or acutre CHF

    Small Emboli- may be silent or cause pumonary hemmorrhage or infarcation

    Multiple small emboli--pumonary hypertension with vascular sclerosisi or cor pumonale

    over 2/3 of cases of PE are not diagnoses before death
  22. gass associated with pumonary Embolism in deep divers is?
    Nitrogen
  23. What happens to people after large surgery? ( when it comes to pathology of lung?)
    can produce a massive embolim after surgery because laying in bed
  24. What is pumonary Hypertension?
    Mean pumonary pressure increase to 1/4 from a system pressure. usually 1/8 much smaller
  25. What is Pumonary Hypertension caused by?
    COPD, Chronic interstitial lung diease, left sideded HF and reccurent pumonary emobolism
  26. What are some of the effects of Pumlmary Hypertension?
    • 1. large arteries, atherosclerosis
    • 2. Medium sized and small muscluar arteries: inteimal fibroissi, hypertrophy or musculo elastic tissue
    • 3. Plexogenic arteripahty
  27. What is Primary Pumonary Hypertension?
    • RARE
    • Plexogenic arteriopthaty can lead to this
    • Idopathic disease seen in childern or women below 40 year

    may show vascular changes

    Athersclerosisi thicking of bronchi wall
  28. What are mechanism pleural effusions?
    Transudars or exudates
  29. What does Transuardes look like?
    Watery clear fluid, in the plura space
  30. What does exudates look like?
    Infection, pulling H20 in , bloody looking.
  31. What are some of the types of pleural effusions?
    Serous, serofibrinous, suppurative, hemorrahagic and chylous, meothroax and pneumotroax

    Fluid in the Pluera space

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