Anatomy Chapter 26

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LaizyDaizy79
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76094
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Anatomy Chapter 26
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2011-04-11 23:01:54
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Human Anatomy
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Circulatory System, Part 2
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  1. What circulatory circuit carries blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart?
    systemic circulation
  2. What circulatory circuit carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart?
    pulmonary circulation
  3. What is a communication between or coalescence of blood vessels?
    anastomosis
  4. What are vessels that form one-way pathways of blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart?
    end arteries
  5. What are blood vessels that will travel together?
    companion vessels
  6. What is the general term that describes the layers of tissue forming the walls of a blood vessel?
    tunics
  7. Blood flows through what space within a blood vessel?
    lumen
  8. Functionally, what makes an artery an artery?
    carries the blood away from the heart
  9. What are the three types of arteries?
    elastic arteries, muscular arteries & arterioles
  10. What type of artery is able to withstand the strong pulsations of the ejected blood as well as reduce the force of the pulsations somewhat so that they pressure of the arterial blood equalizes slightly as it reaches smaller arteries and capillaries?
    elastic arteries
  11. What are some examples of elastic arteries?
    aorta, pulmonary, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian & common iliac arteries
  12. What type of artery has less elastic tissue and more smooth muscle and this are less distenible but more able to vasoconstrict and vasodilate?
    muscular arteries
  13. What are some examples of muscular arteries?
    brachial, anterior tibial, coronary & inferior mesenteric
  14. What is the smallest type of arteries?
    arterioles
  15. What blood vessels consist of a single layer of endothelium and are the functional units of the cardiovascular system?
    capillaries
  16. What type of blood vessel carries blood back to the heart?
    veins
  17. What type of vein carries oxygenated blood?
    pulmonary veins
  18. What is the smallest type of vein?
    venules
  19. How do veins differ structurally from arteries?
    less smooth muscle & valves
  20. What specific blood vessel carries blood away from the left ventricle of the heart?
    ascending aorta
  21. From what blood vessel do the right and left coronary arteries emerge?
    ascending aorta
  22. The ascending aorta leads into what other segment of the aorta?
    aortic arch
  23. Following the flow of blood from the heart, what is the first branch of the aortic arch?
    brachiocephalic trunk
  24. The brachiocephalic trunk bifurcates into what two arteries?
    right common carotid artery & right subclavian artery
  25. Following the flow of blood from the heart, what is the second branch of the aortic arch?
    left common carotid artery
  26. Following the flos of blood from the heart, what is the third branch of the aortic arch?
    left subclavian artery
  27. What region of the body do the common carotid arteries supply?
    head & neck
  28. The aortic arch leads immediatelyinto what other segment of the aorta?
    descending thoracic aorta
  29. Once the descending aorta passes through the diaphragm it is known as what?
    descending abdominal aorta
  30. At what level of the vertebral column does the aorta end?
    L4
  31. The aorta terminates by bifurcating into what two arteries?
    left & right common iliac arteries
  32. The bifurcations of the abdominal aorta themselves bifurcate into what two arteries?
    internal & external iliac artery
  33. What blood vessel returns blood from the lower limbs, pelvis and perineum, and abdominal structures to the right atrium of the heart?
    inferior vena cava
  34. Veins that drain the head, neck, and upper limbs merge to form what vessels?
    left & right brachiocephalic veins
  35. Vessels formed by the merging of veins draining the head, neck, and upper limbs themselves merge to form what vessel, which then drains into the right atrium of the heart?
    sueprior vena cava
  36. The common carotid arteries bifurcate into what arteries?
    external & internal carotid arteries
  37. The external carotid artery terminates by dividing into what two arteries?
    maxillary artery & superficial temporal artery
  38. What vein draining the head can often be seen superficial to the sternocleidomastoid?
    external jugular vein
  39. What deep vein draining the cranial cavity begins at the jugular foramen of the skull?
    internal jugular vein
  40. The external jugular vein drains into what vein?
    subclavian vein
  41. The internal jugular vein merges with the subclavian vein to form what vein?
    brachiocephalic vein
  42. What branch of the internal carotid artery supplies the eyes?
    ophthalmic artery
  43. The internal carotid artery ends by bifurcating into what two arteries?
    anterior & middle cerebral arteries
  44. What arteries arise from the subclavian arteries and travel through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae, enter the skull through the foramen magnum and merge to form the basilar artery?
    vertebral arteries
  45. The basilar artery ends by splitting into what arteries?
    posterior cerebral arteries
  46. What anastomosis of arteries lies around the sella turcica?
    cerebral arterial circle
  47. What small artery connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries?
    anterior communicating artery
  48. What small arteries connect the posterior cerebral arteries and the internal carotid arteries?
    posterior communicating arteries
  49. What veins drain the cranial cavity and extend through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae?
    vertebral veins
  50. What structures collect venous blood from within the cranial cavity and are formed by the two layers of the dura mater?
    dural venous sinuses
  51. What artery emerges from the subclavian artery and supplies the mammary glands and the anterior thoracic wall?
    internal thoracic artery
  52. What two arteries form an extensive anastomosis which supplies the anterior abdominal wall?
    superior & inferior epigastric arteries
  53. What arteries lie between the ribs in the intercostal groove?
    posterior intercostal arteries
  54. What system of veins drains the posterior abdominal and thoracic walls?
    azygos system
  55. What vein carries blood from the posterior abdominal and thoracic walls into the superior vena cava?
    azygos vein
  56. What blood vessels carry blood to and from the structures of the lungs other than the alveoli wehre gas exchange takes place?
    bronchial arteries & veins
  57. What blood vessels carry blood to and from the esophagus?
    esophogeal arteries & veins
  58. What blood vessels carry blood to and from the diaphragm?
    superior & inferior phrenic arteries
  59. What unpaired blood vessel arises from the abdominal aorta and splits into three branches that supply the stomach, part of the duodenum, the liver, and the spleen?
    celiac trunk
  60. What artery supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach?
    left gastric artery
  61. What artery supplies the spleen?
    splenic artery
  62. What branch of the celiac trunk supplies the liver and related organs?
    common hepatic artery
  63. What unpaired artery emerges from the abdominal aorta and supplies most of the small intestine, the pancreas, and the proximal part of the large intestine?
    superior mesenteric artery
  64. What unpaired artery emerges from the abdominal aorta and supplies the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum?
    inferior mesenteric artery
  65. What is a portal system?
    a system of veins that begins & ends in capillaries
  66. What large vein receives oxygen-poor blood but nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract and delivers it directly to the liver?
    hepatic portal vein
  67. What are the three main tributaries of the hepatic portal vein?
    inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein & splenic vein
  68. What arteries supply the kidneys?
    renal arteries
  69. What areteries supply the gonads?
    gonadal artery (testicular arteries & ovarian arteries)
  70. What veins drain the gonads?
    gonadal veins (testicular veins & ovarian veins)
  71. What artery supplies blood to the pelvis and perineum?
    internal iliac artery
  72. What vein drains blood from the pelvis and perineum?
    internal iliac vein
  73. What is a system of veins that begins and ends in capillaries?
    portal system

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