pharmacology note packet three

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pharmacology note packet three
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2011-04-03 19:38:02
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pharmacology note packet three
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  1. endocrine system
    composed of organs (glands) that secrete regulatory substances (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
  2. hormones
    regulatory substances carried to target organs where they influence the physiological activity of these structures
  3. exogenous hormones
    hormones that are administered to an animal
  4. endogenous hormones
    hormones produced naturally in the body
  5. hypothalamus
    structure that integrates the actions of the endocrine and nervous systems
  6. releasing factor (releasing hormone)
    hormone produced by the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary to stimulate the release of tropic hormones
  7. gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    hormone that stimulates the ovaries or testes
  8. pituitary gland
    master gland of the endocrine system, controls the regulation of the system
  9. tropic hormone (anterior pituitary)
    hormone that results in production of a second hormone in a taget gland
  10. correct deficiency of a hormone
    obtain a desired physiological effect
    hormones are needed for two reasons:
  11. Vasopressin (ADH)
    Antidiuretic hormone
    target organ is the kidneys, stimulates water retention, posterior pituitary lobe
  12. Oxytocin
    target organ is the uterus and mammary glands, stimulates uterine contraction and milk letdown, posterior pituitary gland
  13. estrogens
    hormones that are synthesized by the ovaries, hormone of "heat"
  14. progesterone
    hormones produced by the corpus luteum, "hormone of pregnancy"
  15. suppress estrus, treatment of false pregnancy, treatment of behavioral disorders
    uses of progesterones
  16. androgens
    male sex hormones produced in the testicles and adrenal cortex and ovaries
  17. oxytocin (Pitocin)
    produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland, stimulates uterine contraction and milk letdown
  18. dinoprost tromethamine (Lutalyse)
    injectable prostaglandin, lyses active corpus luteum which decreases progesterone
  19. hypothyroidism
    decreased levels of thyroid hormone in the body, seen more often in dogs, treatment is replacement thyroid hormones
  20. hyperthyroidism
    increased levels of thyroid hormone in the body, usually seen in cats, treatment is directed at lowering blood levels of T3 and T4
  21. Tapazole, methimazole
    Hyperthyroid drug, therapy to block hormone production
  22. addison's disease, hypoadrenalcorticism
    results from a deficiency of hormones from the cortex of the adrenal gland, treatment is directed at increasing cortisol
  23. hyperadrenalcorticism, Cushings disease
    results from an excess of hormones from the cortex of the adrenal gland, treatment is to decreased cortisol levels
  24. insulin, glucagon
    hormones produced in the pancreas
  25. diabetes mellitus
    severe metabolic disease resulting from a deficiency of the hormone insulin
  26. type 1
    due to a true deficiency of insulin, 20% of diabetic cats
  27. type 2
    characterized by abnormal insulin secretion and peripheral insulin, 80% of diabetic cats
  28. 40 and 100 units/ml (U-40 and U-100)
    insulin concentrations
  29. U40 and U100 or tuberculin syringes
    insulin syringes
  30. short acting, intermediate acting, long acting
    three types of insulin drugs
  31. short acting
    type of insulin primarily used in diabetic emergencies, clear solution-IV, IM, SQ
  32. intermediate acting
    type of insuling used for maintenance treatment, cloudy suspension SQ
  33. Regular insulin (Humulin R or Novolin R)
    short acting type of insulin
  34. NPH insulin (Humulin N or Novolin N)-100U/ml
    Lente (Vetsulin)-synthetic-40 U/ml
    intermediate insulin drugs
  35. long acting insulin drugs
    type of insulin drug that is used for maintenance treatment, cloudy suspension (SQ), common with cats
  36. PZI Insulin (PZI Vet)-40 U/ml
    Ultralente insuling
    Glargine insulin (Lantus)-100 U/ml
    long acting insuling drugs
  37. cats!
    insulin metablizes faster in....
  38. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  39. granulation tissue
    new tissue formed in the healing of wounds
  40. pruritus
    itching
  41. pyoderma
    any skin disease characterized by the presence of pus
  42. seborrhea
    increase in scaling of skin
  43. much more rapidly
    damaged skin and newborn skin absorbs drugs....
  44. outermost layer of epidermis
    hair follicles
    sweat or sebacious gland
    drugs are absorbed by 3 routes
  45. emollients
    soften and protect skin
  46. protectants
    provide a protective environment to assist healing of non-infected wounds
  47. absorbents
    keeps areas dry by absorbing moisture
  48. wound cleansers
    used during the garage of wounds to help remove necrotic tissue, debris and bacteria
  49. BioDres
    protectant that stimulates wound healing
  50. antiseborrheics
    drugs typically found in medicated shampoos that are used to treat scaly skin, may reduce sebum production
  51. sulfur
    removes excess keratin in the skin
  52. astringents
    used to treat moist dermatitis in dogs and cats and weeping skin in large animals
  53. antiseptics
    kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on living tissue
  54. antipruitics
    provide TEMP relief of itching
  55. antibacterials
    used to treat and prevent superficial bacterial infections of wounds, be careful with deep wounds as drugs may be absorbed systemically
  56. antifungals
    used to treat superficial fungal infections, Foot Rot in cattle and swine and Thrush in horses
  57. gentamicin (Gentocin)
    antibacterial drug
  58. miconazole (Conofite)
    antifungal drugs
  59. nystatin (Panalog, Animax)
    antibacterial and antifungal
  60. caustics
    substances that destroy tissue
  61. counterirritants
    substances used to produce irritation and inflammation
  62. inflammation
    phagocytize bacteria and necrotic debris
    granulation-infiltration of capillaries, collagen and protein
    remodeling and strengthening
    four stages of wound healing
  63. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctiva
  64. ectropion
    a rolling outward of the eyelid
  65. entropion
    a rolling inward of the eyelid
  66. glaucoma
    eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure in anterior chamber, tonometers meaure this
  67. keratitis
    inflammation of the cornea
  68. miosis
    contraction of the pupil
  69. mydriasis
    dilation of the pupil
  70. uveitis
    inflammation of the uvea (low eye pressure)
  71. topical, subconjunctival, parenteral, oral
    routes of administration of eye medications
  72. steroids
    if there is an ulcer in the eye, do not use...
  73. Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS)
    dry eye
  74. schirmer tear test
    measurement of tear production
  75. cyclosporine
    to stimulate tear production, mix with corn oil
  76. mydriatics
    drugs that dilate the pupil, relieves spasm of ciliary muscle
  77. cycloplegics
    drugs that paralyze the muscle of the ciliary body, used to relieve pain
  78. miotics
    drugs that constrict the pupil, treats glaucoma by increasing outflow of aqueous humor which reduces intraocular pressure
  79. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    reduce production of aqueous humor
  80. beta blockers
    reduce intraoccular pressure when used topically
  81. osmotic diuretic
    admin IV in emergency situations to decrease intraoccular pressure
  82. mannitol (Osmitrol)
    Osmotic Diuretic, intraoccular pressure reducing drug
  83. opthalmic anesthetics
    topical anesthetics that anesthetize "numb" the corneal surface
  84. opthalmic stains
    fluorescein stain (dye strips) used to diagnose corneal ulcers
  85. antiviral agents
    treat viral infections of the eye
  86. antifungal agents
    treat fungal infections of the eye
  87. antibacterial agents
    treat superficial ocular infections
  88. anti-inflammatory agents
    steroidal drugs used to treat inflammation of the cornea, uvea, conjunctive, sclera and iris
  89. antibacterial agents
    antibacterial drugs found in otic preparations that are used to treat acute and chronic otitis in animals
  90. antiparasitic agents
    products used to treat parasite infections in the ear such as ear mites and ticks
  91. Ace-Otic Cleanser
    drying agent used to reduce moisture in the ears
  92. antimicrobial
    drugs that inhibit or kill the growth of mircoorganisms
  93. -cidal
    agent capable of killing microorganisms
  94. -static
    agent that inhibits growth or microorganisms
  95. narrow-spectrum
    antibiotic that acts specifically on either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria but not both
  96. broad-spectrum
    antibiotic that acts on both gram-neg and gram-pos bacteria
  97. susceptibility
    measurement of a drugs effect on a microbe
  98. sensitive
    ability of a microbe to be killed or the growth to be inhibited
  99. resistant
    ability of a microbe to withstand doses of a drug that will kill or inhibit the growth of most members of its species
  100. amoxicillin with clavulanic, Clavamox, Augmentin in human medicine
    penicillin drug
  101. tetracyclines
    these drugs can affect bone and teeth formation (staining of teeth) in young animals...bacteriostatic, broad-spectrum, not approved for food-producing animals
  102. aminoglycosides
    bactericidal, narrow-spectrum, not for use in food-producing animals, parenteral
  103. fluoroquinolones
    bactericidal, broad-spectrum, oral and parenteral
  104. Baytril, Zeniquin, Orbax, Dicural, Cipro
    fluoroquinolone drugs
  105. sulfonamides
    "sulfa" drugs, bacteriostatic unless potentiated, narrow-spectrum unless potentiated
  106. Albon, sulfadimethoxine
    sulfonamide drug used to treat coccidia
  107. chloramphenicol
    bacteriostatic (bactericidal at high doses), broad-spectrum, use in food animals has been banned due to fatal anemia in humans
  108. macrolides
    bacteriostatic (or bactericidal at high doses), broad-spectrum
  109. lincosamides
    bacteriostatic or bactericidal (depends on concentrations attained at site of infection), narrow-spectrum from gram-pos bacteria
  110. Tylan
    macrolide drugs
  111. Flagyl, metronidazole
    antimicrobial drug, not in a class of drugs, used to treat giardia
  112. mycoses
    fungal infection that are either superficial or systemic
  113. antiviral drugs
    act by preventing viral penetration of host cell or by inhibiting the virus' replication of RNA or DNA, Interferon (Roferon-A)
  114. nosocomial infections
    infections acquired during hospitalization
  115. sanitizer
    reduces the number of microbes to safe level
  116. sterilizer
    completely destroys all microorganisms
  117. broad spectrum
    non-irritating and nontoxic to tissues
    non-corrosive or staining to inanimate objects
    stable and not easily inactivated
    effective in presence of organic material
    long shelf life
    inexpensive
    ideal properties of disinfectant and antiseptics
  118. Roccal-D Plus
    quarternary ammonium compound, inactivated by soaps, detergents and organic molecules
  119. phenols
    bacteria and virus-moderate activity, fungi-high activity
  120. alcohols
    bacteria-high activity, virus-no activity, fungi-slight activity
  121. ethylene oxide
    bacteria, virus, fungi-high activity, used for gas sterilization
  122. chlorines and iodines
    halogens
  123. chlorines
    bacteria-moderate activity, virus and fungi-high activity
  124. iodines
    bacteria, virus-high activity and fungi-moderate activity, Betadine and Povidine
  125. chlorhexidine
    bacteria,virus,fungi-moderate activity, Nolvasan
  126. glutaraldehyde
    bacteria, virus, fungi-high activity, Cidex
  127. Peroxide
    not virucidal or fungicidal, Hydrogen Peroxide

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