muscle system

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Author:
thale
ID:
76113
Filename:
muscle system
Updated:
2011-03-30 17:30:10
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muscles
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muscle system
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  1. The type of muscle found in the walls of the digestive tract is
    smooth muscle
  2. Heart muscle is also known as
    cardiac muscle
  3. The most abundant type of muscle in the body is a striated muscle, also known as
    skeletal muscle
  4. Muscles that work against each other are said to be
    antagonists
  5. The submicroscopic filaments of a muscle cell are known as
    myofibrils
  6. The functional unit of muscle activity is known as the
    sarcomere
  7. The thick filaments in the central protion of hte sarcomere are composed of the protein
    myosin
  8. The thin filaments of a sarcomere are composed of the protein
    actine
  9. The thin filaments of the sarcomere in a skeletal muscle fiber are anchored to the
    z-line
  10. The theory explaining the contraction of muscle fibers is called the
    sliding filament theory
  11. During muscle contractions, the thick filaments pull on the thin filaments attached to the Z lines and shorten the
    sarcomere
  12. The primary source of energy for muscle contraction is
    ATP
  13. Red muscle has oxygen stored in a red-pigmented molicule called
    myoglobin
  14. The continual contractions of muscle fibers require a supply of hte energy molecule
    ATP
  15. White muscle is so-named because it has little or no
    myoglobin
  16. White muscle is not able to store much
    oxygen
  17. White muscle uses stored glycogen for energy, and it is sometimes called
    glycolytic muscle
  18. When a muscle is at rest, myosin heads are prevented from binding to actin by a protein called
    tropomyosin
  19. Muscles are triggered to contract following release of the neurotransmitter
    acetylcholine
  20. The first ion utilized during muscle contraction is
    sodium
  21. Calcium ions are stored in muscle cells within infoldings of hte plasma membrane called
    transverse tubules
  22. Following their release, calcium ions trigger muscle contractions by binding to the molecule
    troponin
  23. The binding of calcium to troponin causes a shift in the molecule
    tropomyosin
  24. The shift of position of tropomyosin unmasks the sites on actin filaments that bind to the heads of
    myosin
  25. Muscle contractions come to an end when tropomyosin covers the myosin-binding sites on
    actin
  26. Energy is used during muscle relaxation to move calcium ions into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the
    T-tubules
  27. The state of continual muscle contraction following death is called
    rigor mortis
  28. Muscle contracts after its threshold has been reached, and the response is called the
    all-or-none response
  29. The variable response displayed by an entire muscle is known as the
    graded response
  30. The number of muscle fibers contracting in a muscle depends on the stimulation from
    nerve impulses
  31. The contraction of a muscle fiber is known as a
    twitch
  32. All the muscle fibers stimulated by one motor neuron constitute a
    motor unit
  33. The increasing number of twitches occurring with continued muscle stimulation is described as a
    summation
  34. A state of sustained maximum contraction of a muscle is a phenomenon called
    tetanus
  35. The condition in which a muscle is kept partially contracted over a long period of time is known as
    tonus
  36. When ATP is broken down in muscle cells, the two end products are phosphate groups and
    ADP
  37. One source for regenerating ATP is the high-energy molecule
    creatine phosphate
  38. in order for the most energy to be released from carbohydrate molecules in muscle cell metabolism, an essential gas is
    oxygen
  39. when muscle is oxygen-depleted, the energy for muscle contraction is derived from an anaerobic process called
    glycosis
  40. Extreme muscle fatigue is generally due to the buildup of an acid called
    lactic acid
  41. following strnuous activity, a person breathes deeply to repay an
    oxygen debt
  42. much of the lactic acid produced during strenous activity is carried from the muscle cells for metabolism by the
    liver
  43. where contractions of the skeletal muscles are fast, the contractions of smooth muscles are generally
    slow
  44. smooth muscle is so-named because it contains no
    striations
  45. the muscle cells between some smooth muscles are linked together by junctions known as
    gap junctions
  46. where skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, the smooth muscles are
    involuntary
  47. single-unit smooth muscle cells are interconnected by
    gap junctions
  48. cardiac muscle is striated, and it is liberally supplied by energy-yielding organelles called
    mitochondria
  49. the ends of cardiac muscle cells are connected to one another by gap junctions in
    intercalated disks
  50. cardiac muscle is similar to smooth muscle because it is not under
    voluntary control
  51. smooth muscle may be found in the
    digestive tract
  52. the only location for cardiac muscle in the human body is in the
    heart
  53. for every muscle that acts in one direction there is another muscle that is
    antagonist
  54. the skeletal muscles of the body are under
    voluntary control
  55. the two proteins of the myofibrils are
    actin and myosin

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