Livestock Diseases Exam 4

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reagan_08
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Livestock Diseases Exam 4
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2011-03-29 23:27:51
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Exam Lectures
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Exam 4 Lectures
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  1. Failure to produce offspring
    Subnormal number of offspring
    Infertility
  2. Infertility

    Female:
    Male:
    • Female:
    • Failure to cycle
    • estrous cycle alterations
    • failure to conceive

    • Male: spermatozoa production, transport or storage disturbance
    • aberration (lack) of libido
    • mating problem
  3. Termination of gestation after organogenesis is complete but before the expelled fetus can survive
    Abortion
  4. If pregnancy ends before organogenesis is complete
    Early embryonic death
  5. Dead full-term fetus
    Still birth
  6. Estrous cycle:
    Estrus -
    Ovulation -

    Conception:

    Pregnancy:
    Embryo -
    Fetus -

    Parturition:

    Lactation:
    Neonate -
    • Estrus - Anestrus
    • Ovulation - Infertility
    • Conception - Infertility
    • Embryo - Infertility
    • Fetus - Fetal death, Abortion, Mummification
    • Parturition - Perinatal and Neonatal death
    • Neonate - Perinatal and Neonatal death
  7. Failure of testicular descent
    Suppression of spermatogenesis
    Boars and Stallions
    Cryptorchidism
  8. Copulatory failure; surgically correctable
    Penile deviation
  9. Sterile female born twin to male

    Placental blood vessels fuse - failure of development of female reproductive tract
    Freemartinism
  10. Infectious causes of Abortions
    • a. Bacterial diseases: brucellosis, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, vibriosis, anthrax
    • b. Chlamydial
    • c. Viral diseases: IBR, BVD, PRV, Bluetongue
    • d. Fungal infections
    • e. Parasite infections: toxoplasmosis
  11. Physical Causes of Abortions
    • a. Insemination pipets
    • b. Palpation
    • c. Torsion
  12. Chemical causes of Abortions
    • a. Drugs
    • b. Plants
  13. Hormonal causes of Abortions
    • a. Estrogen
    • b. Prostaglandins
  14. Genetic causes of Abortions
    Embryonic defects
  15. Bovine Abortion

    Pathogenesis of infectious abortion
    • 1. Disease in cow
    • 2. Placental transfer
    • 3. Fetal disease
  16. Gestation periods

    Ovum:
    10-12 days following ovulation and fertilization

    loss of ovum is infertility
  17. Gestation periods

    Embryo:

    Sheep:
    Cow:
    Mare:
    14-15 days following fertilization

    • loss of embryo is embryonic death
    • Sheep: 17-20 days
    • Cow: 30-36 days
    • Mare: 70-90 days
  18. Gestation periods

    Fetus:
    Loss of fetus is abortion
  19. Ability to mount an immune response
    Fetal immunocompetency
  20. Gestation period for cow
    285 days
  21. Gestation period for ewe
    149 days
  22. Gestation period for mare
    345 days
  23. Factors affecting dystocia (difficulty calving)

    Calf effects:
    Cow effects:
    Calf effects: heavy birthweight

    Cow effects: age, pelvic size, fetal position
  24. Stages of Parturition
    • 1. Preparatory stage
    • 2. Stage 2 (Delivery)
    • 3. Stage 3 (Cleaning)
  25. Preparatory stage
    • a. fetal position
    • b. uterine changes
    • c. cervix dilates
    • d. contractions- uterus
    • e. water sac expelled
  26. Stage 2 Delivery
    • a. fetus enters canal
    • b. contractions increase
    • c. calf born
  27. Stage 3 Cleaning
    placenta is expelled (6 hrs)
  28. Stages of Calving Assistance
    • 1. pelvic exam
    • 2. determine fetus position
    • 3. determine size of calf
    • 4. attach OB chains
    • 5. traction
    • 6. hip lock
    • 7. posterior presentation - reposition or do c-section
    • 8. torsion of uterus
    • 9. calf puller
  29. Potential Post Delivery Problems
    • Uterine prolapse
    • Retained placenta
    • Vaginal prolapse: occurs before parturition

    *medical treatment
  30. Breeding Soundness Examination
    • 1. BCS
    • 2. General physical exam
    • 3. Scrotum - testicles, epididymus, skin
    • 4. Penis
    • 5. Semen
    • 6. Classification

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