World Civ1 Midterm

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World Civ1 Midterm
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  1. Cyrus the Great
    • Persian king
    • In 500 B.C. conquered the first Persian satrapy (province).
    • Conquest resulted Iranian unification
    • Two major goals:
    • Conquer the west (Anatolia) gain ports of the Mediterranean
    • Secure eastern Iran from nomadic invaders
  2. Conquered Babylon in
    539 B.C.
  3. Satraps appointed over each province
  4. Cyrus the Great
    As conquerors:
  5. Used forced to conquer
    • and diplomacy to rule
    • Usually respected
    • subjects and allowed them to practice their native customs and religions
    • Provide political unity
    • and cultural diversity
    • Allowed Greeks to live
    • according to their customs thus Greek culture spread further east
    • Allowed exiled Jews to
    • return home with sacred objects to rebuild temple
    • Conquered peoples regard
    • him as their legitimate ruler
  6. Hellenism
    The Hellenistic Kingdoms
  7. Four Hellenistic kingdoms emerged
  8. Macedonia under the Antigonid dynasty
    • Syria and the east under the Seleucids
    • Attalid kingdom of Pergamum in western Asia Minor
    • Egypt under the Ptolemies
  9. Greeks and Macedonians formed the new ruling class
    • Hellenizing an urban phenomenon
    • Greeks and Macedonians colonists provided a pool for civilian administrators and workers
  10. Hellenism
    Hellenistic World

    Three of Alexander generals founded dynasties of significance

    • Ptolemy I: founder of the 31st Dynasty in Egypt
    • Ptolemy Dynasty would last until 30 BC (Cleopatra’s death)

    Seleucus I: founder of the Seleucid Dynasty in Mesopotamia

    • Antigonus I: founder of the Antigonid Dynasty in Asia
    • Minor and Macedon
  11. Hellenism
    The Spread of Hellenism
  12. Hellenistic Age:
  13. Blending of Hellenism and Near Eastern cultures
    No comparable sharing of cultures had occurred here since the days of the Mesopotamians
  14. Cities and Kingdoms
  15. Hellenistic kings combined the concepts of monarchy and polis (city-state)
    • Kingdom became dominant in political affairs
    • Polis, now only a city, served as the administrative and cultural capital
  16. Hellenistic cities had theaters, temples, and libraries
    Hellenistic cities served as the economic center of the kingdom (trade and manufacturing)
  17. Yet its “citizens” had no real political power since the king was the only sovereign
  18. Romanization
    Romanization of Europe
  19. During the height of the Roman Empire the Roman army changed from a mobile unit to a defensive force
    • Frontiers became firmly fixed and were defended by a system of forts
    • Areas where legions were stationed became Romanized
    • Retired legionaries often settled where they served and took up a trade they had learned in the army.
  20. Romanization
    Roman Provences
  21. Britain and Belgium became prime grain producers
  22. Wool production also began in Britain
  23. Southern Gaul produced wine in huge quantities
    Romans introduced the olive to southern Spain and North Africa
  24. Olive oil was strongest in Syria
  25. Egypt produced wheat that fed most of the empire
    • Gaul and Germany soon took over the bulk of the pottery industry, glassmaking, and the manufacturing of bronze and brass
    • Europe and western Asia had entered fully into a united economic, political, and cultural world
  26. Five Relationships(Confucius)
    • Filial piety was written by Confucius and is considered to be one of the greatest virtues that must be shown towards the living and the dead,
    • It is a display of respect in 5 different relational scenarios called the 5 bonds.
    • From the:
  27. Ruler to the ruled
    • Father to son
    • Husband to wife
    • Elder brother to younger
    • brother
    • Friend to friend
  28. When these rules are carried out properly people and society also function much better and prosper.
  29. Homer
    • Author of The Iliad &The Odyssey
    • Lived in either 8thor 9th century B.C.
    • Assessment of Homer
    • He did not so muchrecord history as make it
    • Yet, Greeks regarded TheIliad & The Odyssey as authentic history
    • Homer gave Greeks anideal past by writing the tales of the legendary age of heroes
    • Writing used as standardtext for education of generations of Greeks males
  30. Harappan Civilization
    Origins
  31. Discovered in 1920s in modern Pakistan
    • Agricultural settlements dating back 6000 years
    • Ethnic and linguistic similarities to Dravidian people
    • Two major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  32. Harappan Civilization
    Cities: Harappa
  33. Center of power and commerce of Harappa Civilization
    • Its heyday was in 3000 BC
    • 80,000 inhabitants at its peak
    • Architecture and city layout featured heavy use of squares and rectangles and was surrounded by a 40-foot thick, 31-mile stone wall
  34. Harappan Civilization
    Cities: Mohenjo-Daro
  35. Divided into large walled neighborhoods
    • City featured advanced drainage systems
    • Slums
    • Three-storied houses
  36. Harappan Civilization
    Culture
  37. Written language has not been deciphered, so much is unknown about political structures
    • Was not controlled by a single city
    • A confederation of 1500 towns connected by trade
  38. Harappan Civilization
    What happened to the Harappan Civilization?
  39. Did it end?
    • Did it move?
    • Are you part of it?
    • Is it really Atlantis?
    • Skeletons found in running and hiding positions.
    • Aryans?
  40. Polis (Greek city-state)
    Even though each Polis is unique there are the very badge of Greekness
  41. The Polis(city-state)
  42. Unique and fundamental institution of Greek society
    • “Small autonomous political unit in which all major political, social, and religious activities were carried out at one central location.”
    • Polis was a community
    • Citizens with and w/o political rights and noncitizens
    • All citizens possessed fundamental rights
  43. Polis focused on a central point for assembly
    Example: the Acropolisin Athens
  44. Polis
    Governing a Polis
  45. Monarchy
    • Greek for “the rue of one man”
    • King represented the community, reigned according to law, respected each individual citizen
    • Tyranny
  46. Rule by a man who seized power by extra-legal means
  47. Aristocracy
  48. Greek for “power in the hands of the best”
  49. Oligarchy
  50. Greek for “the rule of a few”
    Small group of wealthy citizens (not necessarily aristocrats) ruled
  51. Democracy
  52. Rule by the people
    All Greeks citizens, regardless of birth, or wealth, administered the workings of government
  53. Polis
    • Greek Federalism:
    • Although each polis was guarded its independence they would band together to form leagues of city-states
    • Yet since the Greeks were rarely willing to unite into large political bodies the result was nearly constant warfare
  54. A polis could dominate for a time (Athens) but unlike Rome it could not incorporate other cities
  55. Diocletian (r. 284-305 A.D)
    Ended the period of chaos

    Under Diocletian the emperor became “lord” and claimed he was the “elect of god” ruling with divine favor

    Both Diocletian and Constantine adopted court ceremonies of the Persian Empire

    This was all in an effort to reassert the power of the emperor and thus empire itself
  56. Diocletian
    Diocletian recognized the empire had become too great for one man to handle

    Divided empire into western and eastern haves

    Diocletian assumed control of the east

    Rome became a regional capital

    Although a new “augustus” was appointed in the west it was Diocletian who had the final say

    Yet, throughout the 4th century the eastern and western sections drifted apart

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