Intro to obstrutive and restrictive lung diseases--Semester 1 Mini 3

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Intro to obstrutive and restrictive lung diseases--Semester 1 Mini 3
2011-03-30 09:56:08
Ross Mini semester Respiratory dieseases Pathology

Intro to obstructive and respipratory lung diseases Pathology
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  1. What is COPD?
    Chronic Obstructive pumonary Disease

    Diffculty with expiration due to anatomic narrowing airways that reduced elastic recoil
  2. What is a Restrictive Disease?
    Difficulity with inspiration

    due to reduced total lung capacity

    can be caused by Fibrosis
  3. What is Vital Capcity?
    The most iar that can be inhaled or exhaled in a single breath

    it is decreased in retrictive lung disease
  4. What is the significance of Forced expiratory Volume (FEV1)?
    it the air that you expelled in one sec

    decreased in COPD
  5. What is the Clinical significance of FEV1/VC?
    Tell you what type of disorder you have>

    low ratio you probally have COPD, same ratio you have a restrictive Pumonary disease
  6. What is a terminal Repiratory unit or acinus?
    it is the distal part of the lung to the terminal bronchile and contains respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct and alveolar sacs.
  7. How many lobule clustor at the end of a terminal unit?
    3-5 terminal repiratory units

    this is used to define emphysema
  8. What cell type makes surfactant
    Type II
  9. What are two example of COPD?
    Emphysema and Chronic bronchitis
  10. If i were to use the typanic technique with some who has COPD what would I hear?
    Dull sound--> indication of fluid in the lung. should should hollow

    Fluind in the lung---> edema
  11. What is panacinar?
    Type of Emphysema that has uniform enlargment of acinus (terminal respiratory unit)
  12. What is Emphysema?
    Irreversible overinflation of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiloes with destruction of their wall

    can lead to formation of bullus
  13. What is Centriacinar?
    Enlargment of central parts of the acinus Respiratory bronchi or aveloar duct, sparing the peripheral alveoli

    not very clinically significant
  14. What are some of the causes of emphysema?
    Smoking mostly

    Enzymatic distrution of alveolar wall, due to definincy and alpha anti trypsin def.
  15. What is the protease-antiproteae hypothesis?
    Pathogenic cause of emphysema. destruction of alveolar walls due to an imbalance between protease and protease inhibitors

    pt with herditory alpha 1 antitrypsin deficicy develop emphysema--panacinar at young age
  16. What does smoking do?
    recruits PNLs and macrophages--release protease like elastase and at the same time. smoke and macrophages inactivate alpha 1 anti trypsin
  17. what are the incidence of emphysema?

    releated to smoking
  18. what is the clincial presntation of emphysema?
    Dyspnea with prolonged expiration, cough, expectoration associated iwth bronchitis

    Barrel shaped chest with slowing of forced espiration.

    death in severve cases due to respiratory failure and CHF (cor pulmonale)

    rupture of bullae

    Tension pneumothroax
  19. What is pink puffer a sign of?
  20. what is chronic broncitis?

    cough with sputum for at least 3 months to 2 years

    chronicifrritation and inflammation of the bronchial mucosa

    hypersecretion ofmucus

    hypertrophy of mucus glands

    bronchi and bronchioles are obstruced by mucs pugs and show hypermina and edema and cellular infilration

    epithelium may sow squamus metaplasia and dysplasia
  21. what is a blue botter a sign of?
    Chronic Broncitis
  22. What is a restrictive lung disease?
    chronic inflamation of alveolar wall progressing to interstitial pumonary fibrosis and ending in a honeycob lungs
  23. What are the three pathogensis step of restrictive lung disease?
    Initial event- injyr to alveolar epith/endotheilum (ARDs)

    Eary acute event- aleolitis, with inflammatory changes

    Late even- diffuse interstial fibrosis--> honey comb lungs

    Begins with alveolar wall and gets thicker with fibrosisi
  24. What is Pneumoconioses?
    Occupational and enviorment cause--coal workers pneumoconisis
  25. What are the three type of Carbon dust coal workers pneumoconisis?
    • Anthroacoisis--harmless
    • Simple CWP-- aggregates of coal dust with macrophage--no significat dysfunciton

    Progressive massive fibrosis- or compliacted disbling respiratory insufficncy

    Upper zones more effected the lower zones
  26. What is Silicosis?
    inhalation of sillica particles causes dense nodular fibrosis

    silica lead to macrophages activation and release fobrogenc fcators
  27. What is Asbestosis?
    heavey exposure to to asbestos particles---> lead to fibrous silicates

    asbestos induces pleural effusion and adhesion. fibrocalcific plaques and is associated with increase risk of bronchogenic carcinoma na d pleural mesothelioma
  28. What is geometric forms of asbetosis
    Asbestos ferruginous body

    Asbestos body

    can also see huge plurea or can attach to iron coataintin