patho.txt

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Author:
clarissa1
ID:
7621
Filename:
patho.txt
Updated:
2010-02-23 20:21:22
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neuro
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neuro
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  1. myelinate cns axons-cns
    oligodendrocytes-cns
  2. provide structural framework -cns
    oligodendrocytes-cns
  3. remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis-cns
    microglia-cns
  4. form scar tissue after injury-cns
    astrocytes (star cell)
  5. absorb and recycle neurotransmitters-cns
    astrocytes (star cell) cns
  6. regulate ion, nutrient, and dissolved gas concentrations in cns
    astrocytes (starcell) cns
  7. provide structural support in cns
    astrocytes (starcell) cns
  8. maintain blood barrier
    astrocytes-cns
  9. sensory input goes to the sensory
    receptor
  10. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) consists of:
    CRANIAL + SPINAL NERVES
  11. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) consists of:
    BRAIN + SPINAL CORD
  12. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS CLASSICALLY DIVIDED INTO:
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) BRAIN + SPINAL CORD
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) CRANIAL + SPINAL NERVES
  13. THE blankCONSISTS OF A SELECTIVE BARRIER BETWEEN THE INTRAVASCULAR SPACE AND THE BRAIN WHICH PREVENTS THE PENETRATION OF CERTAIN SUBST. INTO THE CEREBRAL SPACE
    blood brain barrier
  14. blood brain barrier
    THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CONSISTS OF A SELECTIVE BARRIER BETWEEN THE INTRAVASCULAR SPACE AND THE BRAIN WHICH PREVENTS THE PENETRATION OF CERTAIN SUBST. INTO THE CEREBRAL
  15. CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    AUTO-REGULATED BY LOCAL MET. FACTORS WITH [], [] AND [] AS THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES.
    [CO2], [H+] AND [O2]
  16. CAN DETECT CHANGES IN THE ANGLE OF THE HEAD OF A COUPLE OF HAIRS WIDTH
    VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
  17. TOUCH
    • 5 MILLIONS SENSORS IN THE SKIN.
    • EACH HAIR HAS ONE NERVE IN THE ROOT-SO SENSITIVE THAT IT CAN REACT TO DUST.
    • THE SENSORS IN THE TONGUE CAN DETECT 9 000 DIFFERENT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES.
  18. SMELL
    • CAN DETECT 10 000 DIFFERENT SMELLS (SOME OF THEM CAN’T BE DESCRIBED)
    • SMELL SIGNALS ARE FED TO THE AREA CONTROLLING EMOTION AND MEMORY Þ
    • SMELL IS GOOD TO BRING BACK MEMORIES AND INFLUENCE THE MOOD.
  19. 85 CUBIC INCHES
    OF SPACE INSIDE THE SKULL
  20. THE NEURONS OF THE CNS ARE VERY DEPENDENT ON blank METABOLISM.
    THE NEURONS OF THE CNS ARE VERY DEPENDENT ON AEROBIC METABOLISM.
  21. WITHOUT BLOOD FLOW FOR blank THE BRAIN IS REDUCED TO A STATE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS

    AFTER blank, THIS STATE IS USUALLY IRREVERSIBLE.
    • WITHOUT BLOOD FLOW FOR 20 sec. THE BRAIN IS REDUCED TO A STATE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS
    • AFTER 4-5 MINUTES, THIS STATE IS USUALLY IRREVERSIBLE.
  22. DESPITE BEING JUST blank% OF THE BODY WEIGHT (brain)
    2
  23. DESPITE BEING JUST 2% OF THE BODY WEIGHT,THE BRAIN USES ± blank OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    • THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE
    • TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    • AND CONSUMES 20% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
  24. CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    AUTO-REGULATED BY blank METabolism
    • CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    • AUTO-REGULATED BY LOCAL MET
  25. BLOOD SUPPLY IS TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THEblank ACTIVITY
    BLOOD SUPPLY IS TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY
  26. MASSIVE INFARCTION
    • EXTENDED FLOWS
    • BELOW 15 ml/100g/min
    • ÞMASSIVE INFARCTION
  27. MORE METABOLICALLY ACTIVE blankMATTER HAS AblankFLOW THAN the blank MATTER
    MORE METABOLICALLY ACTIVE GRAY MATTER HAS A increased FLOW THAN THE WHITE MATTER
  28. THERE'RE CERTAIN NEURONS IN THE CNS WHICH ARE MORE VULNERABLE TO HYPOXIA.
    (SELECTED LAYERS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND CEREBELLAR AND CEREBRAL CORTICES)
  29. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± blankml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
  30. # of neurons in the brain
    100 million
  31. amount of bloodejected from the ventricles in the time unit
    co
  32. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO blank ART. AND blankTHE ARTERY,
    INTERNAL CAROTID, basiliar
  33. co
    5l/min
  34. anterior circulation to the brain
    2 carotid
  35. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    EACH SUPPLYING
    ± blankml/min WITH TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
    • TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    • EACH SUPPLYING
    • ± 250ml/min WITH TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
  36. INTRACRANIAL CIRCULATING POOL TURNS OVER blanktimes/min.
    INTRACRANIAL CIRCULATING POOL TURNS OVER 5-7 times/min.
  37. TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF blankml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
    TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
  38. posterior circulation to the brain
    basiliar artery
  39. AVERAGE CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
    = blank OF BRAIN TISSUE/min.
    • AVERAGE CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
    • = 55 ml/100g OF BRAIN TISSUE/min.
  40. {co2} is directly or indirectly related to blood flow
    directly
  41. accumulation of blank is the most powerfull indicator of blood flow in brain
    co2
  42. ISCHEMIA
    IF¯if blood flow decreased TO LESS THAN
    • IF¯blood flow decreased TO LESS THAN 30-35ml/100g/min
    • Þ ISCHEMIA
  43. INFARCTION
    • IF blood flow BELOW 20 ml/100g/min
    • Þ INFARCTION
  44. THE BRAIN USES ± blank% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    15
  45. THE BRAIN USES CONSUMES blank% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
    20
  46. THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT AND CONSUMES blank%OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
    THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT AND CONSUMES 20% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
  47. supporting cells of cns, pns
    glial cells
  48. stimulus
    any change in the environment
  49. transducer
    a device or structure that converts one type of energy to another
  50. neuron
    functional unit of cns
  51. have no valves
    sinus'
  52. formation of sinus
    dura mater
  53. space above dura mater
    epiduaral space
  54. along axis of spinal cord
    rostral
  55. protrussion
    gyrus
  56. white matter
    AXONS
  57. gray matter
    body of neurons
  58. depression
    sulcus
  59. neurotransmitter
    biochemical substance that will transfer nerve impulse across synaptic gap(cleft)
  60. nissal bodies
    reproduction of neurotransmitters
  61. line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spinal cavity)- cns
    ependymal cells- cns
  62. assisting in producing, circulating and monitoring of cerbral spinal fluid
    ependymal cells
  63. cells in the central nervous system
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • ependymal cells
  64. cells in the peripheral nervous system
    • schwann cells
    • satellite cells
  65. surround neuron cell body in ganglia IN PNS
    satellite cell IN PNS
  66. surround all axons in pns
    schwann cell IN PNS
  67. responsible for myelination of peripheral axons IN PNS
    schwann cell IN PNS
  68. participate in repair process after injury
    schwann cell IN PNS
  69. fluid in subdural space
    serous fluid
  70. fluid in subarachnoid space
    csf fluid
  71. periosteum and dura mater
    one functional layer
  72. between dura mater and arachnoid mater
    subdural space
  73. between arachnoid mater and pia mater
    subarachnoid space
  74. vessels in brain located in
    subarachnoid space
  75. bound tightly to brain
    directly attached to brain surface and not removable
    pia mater
  76. potential space
    subdural space
  77. dural venous sinus ( 2 parts) with falx cerbri in between
    superior and inferior sagittal sinus
  78. 2 spaces
    subdural and subarachnoid
  79. cerebrum divided into
    • dorsal (superior)
    • ventral (inferior)
  80. brainsten divided into
    • anterior(ventral)
    • posterior (dorsal)
  81. deep sulcus
    fissure
  82. precentral gyrus
    motor cortex
  83. somatic sensory cortex
    postcentral gyrus
  84. ventricles
    Ventricles: Lateral ventricles (2), third ventricle, fourth ventricle
  85. Substances do not pass between cells but through due to tight junctions of blood endothelial cells
    Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
  86. Similar to serum with most of proteins removed
    csf
  87. Bathes brain and spinal cord
    csf
  88. Provides a protective cushion around CNS
    csf
  89. •Produced by ependymal cells
    csf
  90. •Provides some nutrients to CNS tissues
    csf
  91. connective tissue membranes
    • dura mater (superficial)
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater (bound tightly to the brain)
    • spaces
    • subdural (serous fluid)
    • subarachnoid(csf)
  92. CONSISTS ON THE ENTIRE NEURONAL CIRCUITRY THAT CONTROLS EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MOTIVATIONAL DRIVES
    THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
  93. CINGULATE GYRUS, SEPTAL AREA AND PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS
    TELENCEPHALON
  94. IT’S A COLLECTION OF
    INTERCONNECTED BUT NOT CONTIGUOUS
    STRUCTURES IN THE TELENCEPHALON (CINGULATE GYRUS, SEPTAL AREA AND PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS), DIENCEPHALON AND BRAIN STEM
    limbic system
  95. corpus striatum (basal nuclei)
    • caudate nucleus
    • lentiform nucleus
  96. putamen
    globus pallidus
    lentiform nucleus
  97. regions of the brain
    • cerbral hemisphere
    • cerebellum
    • diencephalon
    • brainstem
  98. dura mater - 2 layers
    • periosteal
    • meningeal
  99. INDEPENSIBLE IN SURVIVAL, BY DRIVING PREMORDIAL NEEDS
    LIMBIC SYSTEM
  100. SIMILIAR TO PLASMA
    RICH IN WATER
    ALMOST ZERO RBC
    1 OR 2 WBC
    CSF

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