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Personality is defined as
an individuals way of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Personality theory is defined as
an attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique
The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes
- the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experiences.
- [sigmund freud]
The term, Free Association, is defined as
a psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and menatl images as they come to mind.
The term, Id, is the
- completely unconscious irrational component of personality.
- seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives.
- ruled by pleasure principle
The term, Eros, is the
self preservation or life instinct reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species.
The term, Libido, is the
- psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality.
- sex drive.
The term, Thanatos, is the
death instinct reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions.
The term, Pleasure Principle, is the
- motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort.
- The most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of Id.
The term, Ego, is the
partly comscious, rational component of personlity that regulates thoughts and behaviors and is the most in touch with the demands of the external world.
The reality principle is the
capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist.
The term, Superego, is the
partially conscious self-evalutive, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules.
Ego Defense Mechanisms are
largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety.
The term, Repression, is the
- unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness
- the most fundamental ego defense mechanism
The term, Displacement, is the
- ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitue target that is less threatening or dangerous.
- Ex: Angered by a neighbors hateful comment, a mother spanks her daughter for accidentally spilling her milk
- Form of displacement in which sexual urges are rechanneled into productive, nonsexual activities
- Ex: A Gruaduate student works on her thesis 14 hours a day while her husband is on an extended business trip.
- justifying ones actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than consciously acknowledging one's true motives or desires.
- Ex: After being rejected by a prestigious university,, a student explains that he is glad because he would be happier at a smaller, less ocmpetitive college.
- The attribution of one's own nacceptable urges or qualities to others
- Ex: A married woman who is sexually attracted to a co-worker accuses him of flirting with her.
- Thinking or behaving in a way thaqt is extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.
- Ex: Threatened by his awakening sexual attraction to girls, an adolescent boy goes out of his way to tease and torment adolescent girls.
- The failure to recognize or acknowledge the existence of anxiety-provoking information
- Ex: Despite having multiple drinks every night, a man says he is not an alcoholic because he never drinks before 5 pm
- A form of unconsciously repentance that involves neutralizing or atoning for an unacceptable action or thought with a second action or thought
- Ex: a women who gets a tax refund by cheating on her taxes makes a larger-than-usual donation to the church collection on the following sunday.
- Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development
- Ex: After her parents' bitter divorse, a 10 year old girl refuses to sleep alone in her room, crawling into bed with her mother.
age-related developmental periods in which athe child's sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are exressed through the activites associated with those areas.
a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent.
an ego defense mechanism that involvs reducing anxiety by imitating the behavior and characteristics of another person.\
- The hypothesized part of unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains unversally shared anceswtral experiences and ideas.
- [Carl Jung]
Carl Jung's theory was that
- people are motivated by a more general psychological energy that pushes them to achieve psychological growth, self realization, and psychic wholeness and harmony.
- People develop in significant ways throughout the lifespan.
the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are main components of the collective unconscious
Types of archetypes
- Every man has a femine side
- Every woman has a masculine side
Introverts focus their attention....
Extroverts focus their attention..
- Toward the outside world.
Karen Horney believed
American pations were much more worried about their jobs and economic problems than their sex lives thus stressed the importance of cultural and social factors on personality development.
Horney described three patterns of behavior
Those who move toward other people, those who move against others, and those who move away from others.
- placed much more emphasis on the importance of conscious thought processes and social motives.
- Believed that the most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority.
- a general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness.
- exaggerating one's accomplishments and importance in an effort to cover up weaknesses and denying the reality of one's limitations.
that psychologists should focus on abserable behaviors and on the environmental factors that shape and maintain those behaviors.
- The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development.
- [carl rogers and abraham maslow]
the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism
The set of perception and beliefs that you hold about yourself.
Conditional Positive Regard
the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others, conditional love or acceptance.
Unconditional Postitive Regard
the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others.
Social Cognitive theory
emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy, beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
A model proposed by psychologist Alber Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavior, cognitive, and environment factors.
The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt.
A relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way.
A theroty of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions.
Personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior.
The most fundamental dimensions of personality, the broad basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number
believe that these 15 personality factors represent the essential source traits of human personality. (16PF)
- similar to Cattell's concept, but consisted of 3 dimensions.
- First dimension: introversion-extraverson (direction of energy.)
- Second dimension: neuroticism-emotional stability. (Emotional stability)
- Third Dimension: Psychoticism. (High-cold to others. Low-Warm to others)
Five factor model of personality is
a trait theory of personality that identifies extraverson, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscienctiousness, and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior.
a test that assesses a person's abilities aptitudes, interests, or personality on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of behavior.
A type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image, used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personaltiy traits.
Rarschach Inkblot Test
A projective test using inkblots developede by swiss psychiatrist hermann porschach.
Thematic apperception test
a projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scene.
a type of psychological test in which a person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms.
Minnesota Mutiphasic Personality Inventory
a self report inventory that assesses personality characteristcs and psychological disorders used to assess both normal and distubed populations.
California Personality Inventory
A self report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in mornal populations.
Sixteen Personality Factor questionnaire(16 PF)
a self-report inventory developed by raymond cattell that generates a personality profile with rating on 16 trait dimensions.
- We don't merely observe people' actions, we also abserve the consequences that follow people's actions, the rules and standards that apply to behavior in specific situations, and the ways in which people regulate their own behavior.
- Human behavior and personality is caused by the interaction of behavior, cognitive, and environmental factors.
the aspect of the self-concept that invuldes images of the selves that you hope, fear, and expect to become in the future.