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another term for cancer
less dangerous, less destructive depending on where they are located could possibly be life threatening
more dangerous deadly and destructive
origin of cancer, cancer cells come from normal tissue, genetic changes from normal to cancerous tissue
Half a million will die of cancer each year
well-differentiated tumors that resemble the tissues of origin but have lost the ability to control cell proliferation.
grow by expansion, are enclosed in a fibrous capsule, and do not cause death unless their location is such that is interrupts vital body functions
Malignant neoplasms are...???
less well-differentiated tumors that have lost the ability to control both cell proliferation and differentiation.
*They grow in a crablike manner to invade surrounding tissues, have cells that break loose and travel to distant sites to form metastases, and inevitably cause suffereing and death unless their growth can be controlled through treatment
Invasiveness and Metastasis
*grow out of and go into lymph and blood bessels to form another tumor somewhere else. Tumor knows where it is going.
*Predictable liver, brain and is looking for some marker to make its home
*This process is NOT random
Malignant tumor cells secrets..???
digestive enzymes to facilitate their invasive growth into neighboring tissues
(Anaplasia) Moderately differentiated
moderately malignant neoplams
(Anaplasia) Well differentiated
(Anaplasia) Poorly differentiated
highly malignant neoplasms
Cancers that develop early tend to be...???
normal genes that control cell growth and differentiation; if they become mutated then we call them oncogenes
Normal cell growth is controlled by growth....??
promoting proto-oncogenes and growth-suppressing anti-oncogenes.
Normally, cell growth is genetically controlled so that potentially malignant cells are targeted for elimination by tumor-suppressing genes
Oncogenesis is a genetic process whereby ...???
normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. It involves mutations in the normal growth-regulating genes
The transformation of normal cells into cancer cells is ...???
multifactorial, involving the inheritance of cancer susceptibility genes and environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation and viruses
weight loss and wasting of body fat and muscle tissue
¨Cancer manifestations in sites not directly affected by disease
¨Associated with lung, breast, and hematologic malignancies
Altered function of the involved tissue
destruction and replacement of parenchymal tissue by neoplastic growth
Bleeding and hemorrhage
Compression of blood vessels, with ischemia and necrosis of tissue; or tumor may outgrow its blood supply
Ulceration, necrosis, and infection of tumor area
Ischemia associated with rapid growth, with subsequent bacterial invasion
Obstruction of hollow viscera or communication pathways
Expansive growth of tumor with compression and invasion of tissues
Effusion in serous cavities
Impaired lymph flow from the serous cavity or erosion of tumor into the cavity
Increased rick of vascular thrombosis
Abnormal production of coagulation factors by the tumor, obstruction of venous channels, and immobility
bleeding and depression of RBC production
Metastatic invasion of body structures
Destruction of bone due to metastasis or production by the tumor of parathyroid-like hormone
liberation of pain mediators by the tumor, compression, or ischemia of structures
Cachexia, weakness, wasting of tissues
Catabolic effect of the tumor on body metabolism along with selective trapping of nutrients by rapidly growing tumor cells
Inappropriate hormone production (ADH or ACTH secretion by cancers such as bronchogenic carcinoma)
production by the tumor of hormones or hormone-like substances that are not regulated by normal feedback mechanisms
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (endocrinologic)
Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer, others
Proposed Mechanism: production and release of ADH by tumor
Cushing syndrome (endocrinologic)
Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer, bronchial carcinoid cancers
Proposed Mechanism: Production and release of ACTH by tumor
Associated tumor type: squamous cell cancers of lung, head, neck, ovary
Proposed mechanism: production and release of polupeptide factor with close relationship to PTH
Venous thrombosis (hematologic)
Associated tumor type: pancreatic lung, other cancers
Proposed mechanism: production of procoagulation factors
Nonbacterial thrombolytic endocarditis (hematologic)
Associated tumor type: advanced cancers
Proposed mechanism: hypercoagulability
Eaton-Lambert syndrome (neurologic)
Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer
proposed mechanism: autoimmune production of antibodies to motor end-plate structures