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2011-04-10 12:47:29

ppt. Notes
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  1. neoplasia
    another term for cancer
  2. Benign
    less dangerous, less destructive depending on where they are located could possibly be life threatening
  3. Milignant
    more dangerous deadly and destructive
  4. Etiology
    origin of cancer, cancer cells come from normal tissue, genetic changes from normal to cancerous tissue
  5. Cancer statistics
    Half a million will die of cancer each year
  6. Benign neoplasms
    well-differentiated tumors that resemble the tissues of origin but have lost the ability to control cell proliferation.

    grow by expansion, are enclosed in a fibrous capsule, and do not cause death unless their location is such that is interrupts vital body functions
  7. Malignant neoplasms are...???
    less well-differentiated tumors that have lost the ability to control both cell proliferation and differentiation.

    *They grow in a crablike manner to invade surrounding tissues, have cells that break loose and travel to distant sites to form metastases, and inevitably cause suffereing and death unless their growth can be controlled through treatment
  8. Invasiveness and Metastasis
    (from pic)

    *grow out of and go into lymph and blood bessels to form another tumor somewhere else. Tumor knows where it is going.

    *Predictable liver, brain and is looking for some marker to make its home

    *This process is NOT random
  9. Malignant tumor cells secrets..???
    digestive enzymes to facilitate their invasive growth into neighboring tissues
  10. (Anaplasia) Moderately differentiated
    moderately malignant neoplams
  11. (Anaplasia) Well differentiated
    low-malignancy neoplams
  12. (Anaplasia) Poorly differentiated
    highly malignant neoplasms
  13. Cancers that develop early tend to be...???
  14. Proto-Oncogenes
    normal genes that control cell growth and differentiation; if they become mutated then we call them oncogenes
  15. Normal cell growth is controlled by growth....??
    promoting proto-oncogenes and growth-suppressing anti-oncogenes.

    Normally, cell growth is genetically controlled so that potentially malignant cells are targeted for elimination by tumor-suppressing genes
  16. Oncogenesis is a genetic process whereby ...???
    normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. It involves mutations in the normal growth-regulating genes
  17. The transformation of normal cells into cancer cells is ...???
    multifactorial, involving the inheritance of cancer susceptibility genes and environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation and viruses
  18. Cancer Cachexia
    weight loss and wasting of body fat and muscle tissue
  19. Paraneoplastic Syndromes
    ¨Cancer manifestations in sites not directly affected by disease

    ¨Associated with lung, breast, and hematologic malignancies
  20. Altered function of the involved tissue
    destruction and replacement of parenchymal tissue by neoplastic growth
  21. Bleeding and hemorrhage
    Compression of blood vessels, with ischemia and necrosis of tissue; or tumor may outgrow its blood supply
  22. Ulceration, necrosis, and infection of tumor area
    Ischemia associated with rapid growth, with subsequent bacterial invasion
  23. Obstruction of hollow viscera or communication pathways
    Expansive growth of tumor with compression and invasion of tissues
  24. Effusion in serous cavities
    Impaired lymph flow from the serous cavity or erosion of tumor into the cavity
  25. Increased rick of vascular thrombosis
    Abnormal production of coagulation factors by the tumor, obstruction of venous channels, and immobility
  26. Anemia
    bleeding and depression of RBC production
  27. Bone destruction
    Metastatic invasion of body structures
  28. Hypercalcemia
    Destruction of bone due to metastasis or production by the tumor of parathyroid-like hormone
  29. Pain
    liberation of pain mediators by the tumor, compression, or ischemia of structures
  30. Cachexia, weakness, wasting of tissues
    Catabolic effect of the tumor on body metabolism along with selective trapping of nutrients by rapidly growing tumor cells
  31. Inappropriate hormone production (ADH or ACTH secretion by cancers such as bronchogenic carcinoma)
    production by the tumor of hormones or hormone-like substances that are not regulated by normal feedback mechanisms
  32. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (endocrinologic)
    Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer, others

    Proposed Mechanism: production and release of ADH by tumor
  33. Cushing syndrome (endocrinologic)
    Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer, bronchial carcinoid cancers

    Proposed Mechanism: Production and release of ACTH by tumor
  34. Hypercalcemia (endocrinologic)
    Associated tumor type: squamous cell cancers of lung, head, neck, ovary

    Proposed mechanism: production and release of polupeptide factor with close relationship to PTH
  35. Venous thrombosis (hematologic)
    Associated tumor type: pancreatic lung, other cancers

    Proposed mechanism: production of procoagulation factors
  36. Nonbacterial thrombolytic endocarditis (hematologic)
    Associated tumor type: advanced cancers

    Proposed mechanism: hypercoagulability
  37. Eaton-Lambert syndrome (neurologic)
    Associated tumor type: small cell lung cancer

    proposed mechanism: autoimmune production of antibodies to motor end-plate structures