muscle system 2

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Author:
thale
ID:
76274
Filename:
muscle system 2
Updated:
2011-03-30 18:52:02
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muscles muscle tissue
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Description:
muscle tissue and system
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  1. smooth muscle may be found in the
    digestive tract
  2. the only location for cardiac muscle in the human body is the
    heart
  3. for every muscle that acts in one direction there is another muscle that is
    antagonistic
  4. the skeletal muscles of hte body are under
    voluntary control
  5. the two proteins of the myofibrils are
    actin and myosin
  6. the Z line, I band, and H zone are all anatomical parts of the
    sarcomere
  7. the amount of space between the Z lines shortens during
    contractions
  8. the functional units of skeletal muscle are
    sarcomeres
  9. the energy for muscle contraction is supplied by
    ATP
  10. muscle contraction occurs when
    the myosin filaments slide over the actin filaments
  11. the myoglobin of red muscle is important becasue it
    supplies oxygen for muscle contraction
  12. the presence of myoglobin in red muscle permits the muscle to
    resist fatigue
  13. In a muscle at rest, the myosin heads are prevented from binding to actin
    by the protein tropomyosin
  14. for the successful completion of a muscle contraction, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases
    calcium ions that trigger muscle contractions
  15. in order for a muscle contraction to occur
    a nerve impulse must stimulate the muscle fiber
  16. during muscle contractions, calcium ions bind to sites
    on troponin molecules
  17. muscle cells that lack a supply of ATP
    remain contracted
  18. the fact that a muscle fiber contracts completely or not at all is known as the
    all-or-none response
  19. the number of contracting muscle cells in a particular muscle represents the
    graded response
  20. the state of sustained maximum contraction by a muscle
    is known as tetanus
  21. creatine phosphate is utilized in muscle cells as an
    energy reserve for ATP
  22. the amount of ATP produced during anaerobic reactions in a muscle cell
    is much less than is produced in aerobic reactions
  23. smooth muscle differs from skeletal muscle does not have
    as many actin filaments
  24. the ends of cardiac muscle cells are connected through
    intercalated disks
  25. cardiac muscle is
    striated and involuntary
  26. the structural unit of muscle tissue is the muscle cell, also known as the
    muscle fiber
  27. the three types of muscles are
    smooth, skeletal, and cardiac
  28. the skeletal muscles of the body are under __________ control
    voluntary
  29. the cytoplasm of the muscle cell is referred to as
    sarcoplasm
  30. the thick filaments of the muscle fiber are composed of the protein
    myosin
  31. the line at the ends of sarcomeres is known as the
    Z line
  32. the major energy source for the contraction of muscle is the molecule
    ATP
  33. the second but most important ion for triggering muscle contraction is
    calcium
  34. the contraction observed in a muscle fiber is referred to as a
    twitch
  35. the state of maximum contraction observed in a muscle is referred to as
    tetanus
  36. the state in which a muscle is kept partially contracted over a long period of time is called
    tonus
  37. when a person breathes deeply after strenuous muscle exercise, the oxygen brought into the body helps eliminate the ________ that has built up
    lactic acid
  38. the type of muscle found in most visceral organs is
    smooth muscle
  39. intercalated disks are found only in
    cardiac muscle
  40. the moveable end of the muscle is referred to as the
    insertion
  41. connective tissue bands called aponeuroses attach to fascia of other muscles and also connect
    muscles to bones
  42. in the human body, muscles may serve as
    • flexors
    • extensors
    • adductors
    • abductors
  43. the biceps brachii is so named becasue it has
    two heads
  44. the brachialis, triceps brachii, and biceps brachii are all muscle of the
    upper arm
  45. the muscles of the thigh include the
    • sartorius
    • vastus lateralis
  46. the quadriceps femoris is found near the
    femur and has four heads
  47. the semitendinosus and semimembranosus are both considered to be
    hamstring muscles
  48. the largest muscle of the buttocks is the
    gluteus maximus
  49. when the head is flexed and extended such as in saying yes and no, the muscles permitting this movement include the
    sternocleidomastoid
  50. muscles are often attached to bones by connective tissue referred to as
    tendons
  51. the plasma membrane of a muscle cell is known as the
    sarcolemma
  52. ___________is similar to a tendon except that they are arranged in flat sheets
    aponeurosis
  53. in general, skeletal muscle insertions are found
    on the bone that is to be moved
  54. in a skeletal muscle fiber, the sarcomere is a repetitive unit that consists of the entire region between the
    Z lines
  55. muscle tissue is responsible for
    movement
  56. muscles that are concerned with bracing actions are called
    fixators
  57. myofibrils are primarily composed of
    actin and myosin
  58. Fx of skeletal muscle
    • generates heat
    • maintains posture
    • stabilizes joints
  59. the contractions of skeletal muscle is
    voluntary
  60. the contractions of cardiac muscle is
    involuntary
  61. the contractions of smooth muscle is
    involuntary
  62. The location of skeletal muscle is
    attached to bones or skin
  63. the location of cardiac muscle is
    wall of the heart
  64. the location of smooth muscle is
    mostly walls of hollow organs
  65. five golden rules of skeletal muscle activity
    • 1. all muscles cross at least one joint
    • 2. bulk of muscle is proximal to the joint where it has its action
    • 3. all muscles have at least two attachment sites
    • 4. muscles can only pull
    • 5. during contraction the insertion moves towards the origin
  66. criteria used in naming skeletal muscle
    • direction of fibers
    • relative size
    • location (associated w/ bone)
    • number of origins
    • location of insertion & origin
    • action (extensor/flexor)
  67. decrease in the angle of the joint
    flexion
  68. increase in the angle of the joint
    extention
  69. extention beyond normal position
    hyper extention
  70. away from the midline
    abduction
  71. towards the midline
    adduction
  72. cone shaped movement
    circumduction
  73. turning the bone on its own axis
    rotation
  74. position of palm is inferior
    supination
  75. position of palm is inferior
    pronation
  76. position of sole is medial
    inversion
  77. position of sole is lateral
    eversion
  78. toes are pointed towards the shin
    dorsiflexion
  79. toes are pointed away from shin
    plantar flexion
  80. forward movement of jaw or shoulder
    protraction
  81. lifting of jaw or shoulder
    elevation
  82. lowering of jaw or shoulder
    depression
  83. touching thumbs to fingertips
    opposition
  84. Fx of the muscular system
    • produce movement
    • maintain posture
    • stabilize joints
    • generate heat

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