nervous system & special senses

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nervous system & special senses
2011-03-30 20:22:13
nervouse system special senses

chapter 7 nervous chapter 8 special senses
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  1. the peripheral nervous system is composed of
    sensory receptors and nerves
  2. the brain and spinal cord are components of the
  3. Schwann cells are located on the neurons forming
    myelin sheaths
  4. within the nervous system there are more _______ than _____
    • glial cells
    • neurons
  5. bipolar neurons have
    one axon and one dendrite
  6. the fx of dendrites is to
    conduct nerve impulses to the cell body
  7. bundles of axons generally travel together as
    nerve fibers
  8. the axon is not insulate with myelin at the
    nodes of Ranvier
  9. multiple sclerosis is caused by deterioration of the patches of
  10. a restin neuron is
  11. a nerve impulse is the same thing as the
    action potential
  12. the ions that maintain the ionic imbalance in a resting neuron are
    potassium & sodium
  13. the neuron repolarizes after a nerve impulse passes by the influx of
    potassium ions
  14. when stimulated, the membrane of the neuron
    undergoes depolarization
  15. a synapse occurring between a neuron and a muscle cell is called a
    neuromuscular juntion
  16. once acetylcholine has been utilized in a synapse, it is
    broken down
  17. the two main divisions of the nervous system are the
    • PNS
    • CNS
  18. afferent nerves are also called
    sensory nerves
  19. the two main types of cells in the nervous system are
    • nerve cells
    • glial cells
  20. glial cells with long processes to help form the blood-brain barrier are
  21. Provides support to the nerve cells
  22. neurons with a single extension functioning as both an axon and dendrite are called
    unipolar neurons
  23. the nucleus of a neuron is found in the
    cell body
  24. nerve cell extensions specialized to receive nerve impulses are the
  25. chemicals released by neurons at hte synaptic knobs are called
  26. the neurofibril nodes are places on the dendrite where there is
    no myelin
  27. a mass of cell bodies of several neurons
  28. the place where an axon comes close to, but does not join a dendrite, is called a
  29. to stimulate a nerve impulse, a stimulus alters the resting potential by increasing the permeability of the
    plasma membrane
  30. an action potential, a wave of depolarization in a nerve cell, is the same as a
    nerve impulse
  31. The release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft is allowed through what process
  32. the three neurotransmitters of the catecholamine group are
    • dopamine
    • epinephrine
    • norepinerphrine
  33. interneurons make up most of the
  34. most cell bodies of neurons of the PNS are located
    within or near the CNS
  35. most nerves contain
    motor axons and sensory dendrites
  36. white matter of the nervous system is white because
    myelin in myelin sheaths is white
  37. the cerebrospinal fluid may be found
    in the central canal of the spinal cord
  38. the dorsal nerve roots are the sites of
    cell bodies and axons of sensory nerves
  39. destruction of the ventral nerve roots will result in
    the inability to move
  40. the descending tracts in the spinal cord
    carry impulses for transmission to muscles and glands
  41. the outer protion of the cerebrum is composed of
    gray matter
  42. area's for hearing are located in the cerebrum's
    temporal lobe
  43. the ventricles of the cerebrum carry the
    cerebrospinal fluid
  44. the thalamus and hypothalamus are both located in the
  45. nerve cells located in the midbrain fx as
    reflex centers
  46. the glossopharyngeal nerve has sensory and motor functions relating to the
    tongue and pharynx
  47. axons normally carry information __________ the nerve cell body
    away from
  48. dendrites carry information ___________ the nerve cell body
  49. which cranial nerves extend beyond the head and neck
    • accessory nerve (XI)
    • Vagus nerve (X)
  50. sensory, or afferent, nerve fibers carry information
    toward the CNS
  51. the three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS structures are collectively known as the
  52. The outermost layer of the meninges is the
    dura mater
  53. the part of the CNS contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata is
    brain stem
  54. between successive Schwann cells, there are gaps in the myelin sheath called
    nodes of Ranvier
  55. the ________ produces cerebrospinal fluid
    Choroid plexus
  56. the part of the brain concerned with water balance, appetite, and regulating body temperature is the
  57. the corpus callosum connects the
    right and left cerebral hemispheres
  58. dendrites
    receive stimuli
  59. axons
    transmit impulses
  60. CNS neuroglial cells
    • astrocytes
    • microglial
    • ependymal cell
    • oligodendrocytes
  61. astrocytes
    nourish and protect
  62. microglial cells
    immune protection
  63. ependymal cells
    circulate cerebrospinal fluid
  64. oligodendrocytes
    • form myelin sheath
    • fatty insulator
    • speedy conduction time
    • soltatory conduction
  65. PNS neuroglial cells
    • neurolemmocytes
    • satellite cells
  66. neurolemmocytes
    • myelin sheaths
    • speedy conduction time
    • soltatory conduction
  67. satellite cells
    protection & cushioning
  68. White matter does what
    communication with in the brain between different areas
  69. the cerebral hemisphere is
    divided into R/L hemispheres, gray & white matter found here.
  70. The thalamus does what
    relay station for sensory impulses
  71. the cerebellum is for
  72. The blood brain barrier does not protect against
    fats & gases
  73. The spinal cord extends from________ to the region of ________
    • medulla oblongota
    • L1-L2
  74. afferent nerves carry impulses
    to CNS
  75. efferent nerves carry impulses
    away from CNS
  76. What are the three sensory cranial nerves
    • I-olfactory
    • II-optic
    • VIII-vestibulocochlear
  77. I-Olfactory Nerve
    sensory for smell
  78. II-Optic nerve
    sensory for vision
  79. III-Oculomotor nerve
    motor to eye muscles
  80. IV-trochlear nerve
    motor to eye muscles
  81. V-trigeminal nerve
    • sensory for face
    • motor fibers to chewing muscles
  82. VI-Abducens nerve
    motor to eye muscles
  83. VII-Facial
    • sensory for taste
    • motor fibers to face
  84. VIII-vestibulocochlear
    sensory for balance and hearing
  85. IX-glossopharyngeal
    • sensory for taste
    • motor fibers to pharynx
  86. bitter taste buds are located at the
    back of tongue
  87. X-vagus nerve
    sensory/motor fibers to neck/upper back
  88. XI-Accesory
    motor fibers to neck/upper back
  89. XII-hypoglossal
    motor fibers to tongue
  90. What are the four types of taste
    • sweet
    • sour
    • salty
    • bitter
  91. the exchange of ions in neurons initiates an
    action potential in neurons
  92. The sclera is
    the white portion of the eye
  93. the iris is the
    colored portion of the eye
  94. The external ear consist of
    • auricle (pinna)
    • external auditory canal
  95. The middle ear starts at the
    tympanum, tympanic membrane, myrinx(eardrum)
  96. The inner ear consists of
    • cochlea
    • vestibule
    • semicircular canals
  97. the cochlea contains the
    spiral organ of corti
  98. the fx of the vestibule is
    static equilibrium
  99. the area where the optic nerve enters is
    optic disk
  100. the area of best visual acuity
    fovea centralis
  101. somatic impulses of the CNS control
    • skin
    • skeletal muscles
    • joints
  102. visceral impulses of the CNS control
    internal organs
  103. the dura mater
    anchors the brain in place
  104. enlargement of the spinal cord occurs in the
    cervical and lumbar regions
  105. The cuada equina is
    a collection of spinal nerves branching from cord end
  106. Cranial nerve III-Oculomotor
    motor to eye musles
  107. Cranial nerve VI-Abducens nerve
    • motor to eye muscles
    • lateral-abducts eye
  108. Cranial nerve IX-Glossopharyngeal
    • sensory for taste
    • motor fibers to the pharynx
    • bitter taste
  109. Cranial nerve XII-Hypoglossal
    motor fibers to tongue
  110. What gives shape to the eye, protects, an attachment site for extrinsic eye muscles, and is made of white fibrous connective tissue
  111. The cornea is
    transparent, avascular
  112. The blind spot of the eye is in the
    optic disk
  113. The cranial nerves for the eye are
    • LR6(SO4)3
    • Lateral rectus is cranial nerve VI
    • Superior Oblique is cranial nerve IV
    • All the others are cranial nerve III
  114. shell shaped structure made of elastic cartilage in the ear
  115. Three parts to the Inner Ear (Labyrinth)
    • cochlea
    • vestibue
    • semicircular canals
  116. a delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers parts of the outer surface of the eyeball is called the
  117. the area of the retina containing only cone cells is the
    fovea centralis
  118. the auditory tube is located between the
    throat and middle ear
  119. the portion of the fibrous tunic that is white in color is the
  120. the transparent anterior portion of the fibrous tunic is the
  121. the maculae of the vestibule record__________, while the crista of the semicircular canals record__________
    • static equilibrium
    • dynamic equilibrium
  122. the receptors for _________and _________ are classified as chemoreceptors
    • gustation
    • olfaction
  123. Olfactory cells are located in the
    superior nasal cavity
  124. The malleus is connected to the
    tympanic membrane
  125. the outer layer fo the wall of the eye is composed of the
    cornea and sclera
  126. the vitreous humor of the eye may be found between the
    lens and retina
  127. the iris is composed of
    two layers of smooth muscle
  128. the color of a person's eyes depends upon which pigments are contained in the
  129. the conjunctiva is a mucous membrane covering the _________ and lining the ________
    • eyeballs
    • eyelids
  130. tears are produced by a set of glands next to the eyeball and known as the
    lacrimal glands
  131. the rod-shaped cell of the retina permit vision where there is
    dim light
  132. the highest concentration of rod-shaped cells is at the
    outer edge of the retina
  133. an inverted image is converted into an upright image at the
    occipital lobe of the brain
  134. the process of accommodation for near vision is due to the
    changing shape of the lens
  135. a person who suffer from nearsightedness can be assisted by glasses having
    biconcave lenses
  136. a person suffering from farsightedness can be helped by wearing glasses with
    biconvex lenses
  137. in a person who is farsighted the image forms
    behind the retina
  138. color blindness is the result of
    genetic inheritance
  139. the auditory tube leads from the
    pharynx to the inner ear
  140. sound vibrations ar econducted from the stapes to the perilymph of the cochlea by the
    oval window
  141. molicules stimulating the sour taste are mostly detected at the
    lateral anterior portion of the tongue
  142. the taste buds send their impulses to the brain for interpretation utilizing the
    facial and glossopharyngeal nerves
  143. the olfactory nerve is primarily concerned with carrying impulses from the
  144. the utricle, saccule, and vestibule are all concerned with the sense of
  145. the nerve that transmits impulses from the eye to the brains is the
    optic nerve
  146. the two components of the outer layer of the eyeball are the
    cornea and the sclera
  147. the posterior chamber of the eye is found between the
    iris and the lens
  148. the neurons receiving impulses initiated by rod and cone cells are
    bipolar neurons
  149. the mucous membrane folded over part of the eyeball and lining the eyelid is the
  150. tears are produced in the eye to bath the eyeball by the
    lacrimal apparatus
  151. the principal sx for focusing light rays on the retina is the
  152. what condition is due to an irregular curvature of the lens or cornea
  153. the major site for hearing perception in the brain is the temporal lobe of the
  154. the three middle ear bones that transmit sound waves are known as the
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
  155. the variety of smells that the body can detect is
    over 4,000
  156. the semicircular canals of the inner ear are concerned primarily with the sense of