bio chapter 6 protein

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Anonymous
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76316
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bio chapter 6 protein
Updated:
2011-03-30 21:45:44
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protein
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protein
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  1. Bugs provide what percent of protein worldwide
    10%
  2. what bug has the most protein
    spider
  3. protein contains what elements
    hydrogen, oxogen, nitrogen
  4. proteins are made from how many different amino acids
    20
  5. how many amino acids are indespesible (essential)
    9
  6. each amino acid contains a
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    • amino group
    • acid group
    • hydrogen atom
    • side group
  7. Side groups job?
    makes each amino acid unique
  8. Sequence of amino acids in each protein determines
    unique shape and function
  9. Unique side groups result
    in differences in ?
    size, shape and electrical charge
  10. 11 nonessential
    (dispensable) amino acids
    body can create
  11. 9 essential (indispensable) amino acids
    must be supplied by foods people eat:
  12. Amino acid chains linked
    by ?
    • peptide bonds in
    • condensation (building) reactions
  13. Polypeptides?
    • more than 10 amino acids
    • bonded together
  14. Amino acid sequences are
    all different - allows for ?
    • wide variety of
    • possibilities
  15. Hydrophilic side groups ?
    attracted to water
  16. Hydrophobic side groups ?
    repel water
  17. Coiled and twisted chains
    help provide
    stability
  18. Protein denaturation?
    • uncoiling of
    • protein that changes ability to function
  19. Destabilizers?
    • acidity, alkalinity, heat,
    • alcohol, oxidation and agitation
  20. Cooking breaks ?
    protein bonds
  21. After certain point, denaturation
    cannot be reversed
  22. Protein Digestion ?
    • •Stomach acid & enzymes
    • •Denatured
    • - then broken down to polypeptides
    • •Small
    • intestine - breakdown continues into smaller peptides & amino acids for
    • absorption
  23. Protein denatured by ?
    hydrochloric acid
  24. Pepsinogen (a proenzyme) converted into active form
    pepsin in presence of hydrochloric acid
  25. Pepsin
    cleaves (breaks) proteins into ?
    smaller polypeptides
  26. Small
    Intestine?
    Proteases
  27. Stomach
    Pepsinogen
  28. Peptidases split proteins into ?
    amino acids
  29. Intestinal cells use?
    • protein for energy or
    • synthesis of necessary compounds
  30. Protein Synthesis?
    • determined by amino acid
    • sequence
  31. Delivery instructions
    through?
    messenger RNA
  32. Transfer RNA?
    • lines up amino acids and
    • brings them to messenger
  33. Sequencing errors
    cause
    altered protein production
  34. Epigenetics
    • nutrient’s ability to
    • activate or silence genes without interfering with genetic sequence
  35. Enzymes
    • speed up chemical
    • reactions
  36. Hormones
    chemical messengers
  37. Antibodies?
    • foreign ‘invader’
    • protection
  38. matrix of collagen filled with minerals
    provides ?
    • strength to bones and
    • teeth
  39. replaces tissues?
    • skin, hair, nails and GI
    • tract lining (keratin)
  40. Enzymes?
    • proteins that speed up anabolic (building up) and catabolic (breaking down) chemical
    • reactions
  41. Hormones
    • chemical messengers; some
    • hormones are proteins (example insulin
  42. Plasma proteins?
    attract water
  43. Maintain volume of body
    fluids to prevent
    edema- excess fluid buildup
  44. proteins Maintain
    composition of body fluids
  45. Buffers
    • keeping solutions acidic
    • or alkaline
  46. Acids
    compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution
  47. Bases
    compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution
  48. Acidosis
    • high levels of acid in
    • blood and body fluids
  49. Alkalosis
    • high levels of alkalinity
    • in blood and body fluids
  50. Transporters?
    • •Carry lipids, vitamins, minerals
    • and oxygen in body
  51. transporters act as
    • •pumps &
    • channels in cell membranes, transferring compounds from one side of
    • cell membrane to other
  52. Antibodies fight ?
    • antigens (like bacteria
    • and viruses) that invade body
  53. antibodies provide?
    immunity to fight antigen more quickly second time exposure occurs
  54. protein if needed can be a
    energy and glucose source
  55. Blood clotting?
    • producing fibrin which
    • forms a solid clot
  56. Vision?
    • creating light-sensitive
    • pigments in retina
  57. Protein turnover?
    • continual making and
    • breaking down of protein
  58. Amino acid pool?
    • supply of available amino
    • acids
  59. Exogenous
    amino acids from food
  60. Endogenous
    • amino acids from within
    • the body
  61. Zero nitrogen balance
    • nitrogen equilibrium-when
    • input equals output
  62. Positive nitrogen balance
    • nitrogen consumed is
    • greater than nitrogen excreted
  63. Negative nitrogen balance
    • nitrogen excreted is
    • greater than nitrogen consumed
  64. Make indispensable amino acids
    • cells assemble amino acids
    • into needed protein
  65. Neurotransmitters
    • made from amino acid
    • tyrosine
  66. Tyrosine
    • made into melanin pigment
    • or thyroxine
  67. Tryptophan makes
    niacin and serotonin
  68. No readily available storage form of
    protein
  69. Excess protein eaten
    stored
    as body fat
  70. nitrogen is
    excreeted
  71. Animal proteins
    90-99% absorbed
  72. Plant proteins
    70-90% absorbed
  73. Soy and legumes
    90% absorbed
  74. Other foods consumed at
    same time can
    change digestibility
  75. Animal foods contain all
    essential amino acids
  76. High-Quality Proteins Contains all
    indispensable amino acids
  77. Plant foods diverse in content
    • tend to be missing one or
    • more essential amino acids

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