intro mgmt exam 2

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intro mgmt exam 2
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intro exam # 2
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  1. Analgesic
    Any drug that helps alleviate or block pain
  2. NSAID
    Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
  3. Anesthesia
    • Loss of sensation without pain
    • Pharmacologically induced
    • Reversible
  4. Anestheisa is a reversible state of...
    • Amnesia
    • Analgesia
    • Loss of consciouness
    • Loss of skeletal muscle reflexes
    • Decreased stress response
  5. Reasons for using Anesthesia
    • Examination
    • Restraint
    • Manipulation
    • Surgery
    • Control seizures and/or convulsions
    • Euthanasia
  6. Examination
    A physical or radiograph
  7. Restraint
    In order to groom, splint, suture, etc., animals have to be restrained to make it easier
  8. Manipulation
    A part or bone is sticking out or pulled out and it has to be fixed. Ex: A dog's bone sticking out of its leg after a car accident
  9. The 3 Basic Types of Anesthesia
    Local, Regional, and General
  10. Local
    • Agent works on neurons in a limited, specific area.
    • The shot given to you before getting stitches
  11. Regional
    • Loss of pain sensation in certain regions of the body.
    • Epidural
  12. Regional Block
    Used to test a lame horse
  13. General
    Drug induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation.
  14. Types of Inhalants
    Chamber, mask, and intubate
  15. Intubate
    Put a tube down the throat and connect it to a gas anesthetic machine or oxygen machine.
  16. 3 Essential Requirements with Inhalants
    • Supply O2 to lung alveolar membrane

    • Remove CO2 from lungs; something has to capture the CO2 when it comes out so they don’t breathe it back in

    • Supply anesthetic gas at a controlled partial pressure

  17. Advantage of Parenteral
    Simplicity of equipment (just a needle and syringe)
  18. Disadvantages of Parenteral
    • Slower onset than inhalants
    • Very difficult to control the amount of anesthesia
  19. Advantages of Inhalants
    • Faster than liquid anesthetics
    • Control depth of anesthesia
    • Wake up within 5-15 minutes
  20. Disadvantages of Inhalants
    • Complicated and expensive equipment
    • Environmental pollution
    • Bad for your health as well (toxins)
  21. Criteria for Species
    Different species require different anesthetics
  22. Criteria for Health Status
    Some animals won't be able to recover from anesthesia because of their current health problems, like borderline kidney or liver failure, or a tumor. Decisions have to be made according to the health status
  23. Criteria for Post-Op Fate
    What's going to happen to the animal when the procedure is done. Ex: Mom and pups
  24. Facilities
    What's available for us to use
  25. Legal aspects
    Doing things ethically and morally
  26. Jab stick
    A long stick with a needle and an anesthetic on the end
  27. Dart gun vs. Blow gun
    A dart gun can hurt the animal if it's too close or comes out too fast. A blow gun is safer and more accurate
  28. Reversible Anesthetics
    A wild animal must be able to defend itself once we walk away, so we need to reverse what we did. If an animal is defenseless something will come and kill it.
  29. Stages of anesthesia
    • Stage 1 (Onset)
    • Stage 2 (Excitement)
    • Stage 3 (Surgical Depth)
    • Stage 4 (OD/Death)
  30. Stage 1 (Onset)
    • Analgesia/Amnesia
    • Mostly conscious with normal vitals
    • No lowering of pain reaction, so don't do pain test (you will get bitten)
  31. Stage 2 (Excitement)
    • Exaggerated reflexes (muscle twitching)
    • Animals may struggle, bite, kick
    • Need to progress through this rapidly to minimize effects
    • Drug is designed to reach the heart and OD
  32. Stage 3 (Surgical Depth)
    • Use toe reflex as determinant; make sure we cut off the pain threshold

    • 4 planes of surgical anesthesia

  33. Plane 1
    • Still has blink and swallow reflexes
    • Regular respiration with good chest motion
  34. Plane 2
    • Best plane for surgery
    • Normal respiration/chest movement
  35. Plane 3
    • Deep anesthesia
    • Depressed heart rate and respiratory rate
  36. Plane 4
    Death is coming close
  37. Stage 4
    • Anesthesia reaches heart and OD's
    • Death
  38. Monitoring animals
    • Animals are checked periodically
    • Clinical signs checked: Respiration (RR), Circulation (HR), Muscle Relaxation (all the muscles twitch after death), Ocular (eyes become divergent-centrally located)
  39. Reflexes that are checked periodically
    Corneal, Palpebral (eyelids), Vibrissae (whiskers), Pinch (toe, tail, and ear); we need to make sure we cut off the pain threshold
  40. Common drugs: Phenothiazines
    • Acepromazine (Ace)
    • Very strong sedatic traits
  41. Butorphanols
    • Torbugesic, Torbutrol
    • Very potent analgesics
  42. Benzodiazepines
    • Diazepam (Valium)
    • Very strong muscle relaxant
  43. Xylazine Hydrochloride
    • Xylazine (Rompun)
    • Very strong sedatic traits, very potent analgesic, very strong muscle relaxant
  44. Thiopental Sodium/Thiamylal
    • Pentothal/Surital
    • Pre-anesthetic; More commonly known in people as "truth serum." It releases your inhibitions to answer questions; doesn't necessarily mean you can't lie
  45. Pentobarbital Sodium
    • Controls seizures, particularly in dogs
    • Pentobarb; Nembutal, Mebumal
  46. Ketamine Hydrochloride
    • No muscle relaxant properties
    • Ketamine; Ketalar, Ketaset, Ketmex, Ketotal
  47. Common Inhalants (Volatile Anesthetics)
    Halothane, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Desflurane
  48. Halothane and Methoxyflurane
    • Can be used interchangeably and most common in small animals
    • Halothane is very liver toxic
    • Methoxyflurane is metabolized by the body and becomes toxic to the kidneys
  49. Enflurane and Isoflurane
    As soon as you cut the anesthesia and give the animal fresh O2, they start to wake up immediately.
  50. Nutrition
    Science of food composition and its use by the body
  51. Commercial diets
    Those that you buy commercially; come prepared for you already
  52. Advantages of Commercial
    • Regulated by Federal and State laws
    • Balanced
    • Premade
    • Very long shelf life
    • Plenty of choices
    • Pretty high nutritive value
  53. Disadvantages of Commercial
    • Not quite as balanced as Prepared diets
    • Batch variability (one batch might be better than another)
  54. Prepared diets
    Ones that you have to physically make up yourself; fresh
  55. Advantages of Prepared
    • Much more nutritive value than Commercially made
    • Fresh
  56. Disadvantages of Prepared
    • Don't last that long (fresh food spoils)
    • Time-consuming
  57. Sources of energy
    Carbs, Fat, and Protein
  58. Carbs
    The body can metabolize carbs quickly and efficiently
  59. Fats
    Fats store food/energy; Body can get to it easily
  60. Proteins
    • Single greatest source of protein is red meat (better than fish and any plant)
    • Protein is the last source of energy; body can metabolize energy from protein somewhat
  61. Complete protein
    • All animal proteins (meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs); anything derived from animals
    • They have ample amounts of amino acids, which we need
    • Gelatin is the only animal protein that is incomplete; it doesn't have all the essential amino acids
  62. Incomplete protein
    • Grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, all vegetable proteins
    • They contain some amino acids but not all or not the essential ones
    • Grains and legumes are both high in fiber
  63. Essential amino acids
    • Arginine
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalaline
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  64. Minerals
    • Inorganic elements
    • Utilized as structural components of tissue and cellular compounds
    • Catalysts for enzyme activity
    • Body does not produce them
    • Taken in small (trace) amounts
    • Found within food supply in small amounts
  65. Mineral deficiency
    If animals don't get enough minerals, they won't get absorbed. Increased demand by body and increased urinary loss
  66. Common minerals
    Calcium (bone growth), Iodine (key component in growth, Thyroid), Phosphorous, Chlorine, Iron (blood can carry oxygen; hemoglobin), Selenium, Chromium, Magnesium, Sodium (water balance in body), Potassium (water balance in body), Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Flourine, Molybdenum
  67. Vitamins
    • "vita"=life, "amine"=amino groups (C-O-H)
    • They are organic compounds- cannot be oxidized into energy; you need them in larger amounts than minerals (macrogram or milligram). What type of vitamin you get depends on whatever food you have.
  68. 2 types of vitamins
    Fat soluble and Water soluble
  69. Fat soluble Vitamins
    Vitamins K, A, D, and E. -> they are the only vitamins that you can OD on. Every other vitamin is water soluble
  70. Vitamin D
    • Calcium
    • You can get it from the sun, and it's hard to manufacture in food
  71. Vitamin K
    Important for blood coagulation
  72. Water soluble vitamins
    Cannot OD on them; your body just flushes them out, specifically Vitamin C.
  73. Vitamin Deficiency
    Common causes: Don't get enough, impaired absorption, increased metabolic demand
  74. Fiber
    • Class of compounds
    • Nondigestible polysaccharides found in plant cell walls
  75. Forms of diets
    • Pellets: Most common diet for lab animals; come in different sizes and shapes
    • Meal: Ground up and powdery
    • Semi-moist: Cat food and other animal food that comes in pouches or cans
    • Liquid
  76. Types of Diets
    Natural, Purified, Chemically defined, and Special
  77. Purified Diet
    Have a distinct purpose; we know ALL of the ingredients. Completely open formulas, very precise nutrient composite, repeatable consistency (made the same way every time), easy to modify
  78. Chemically Defined Diet
    • Have simple, elemental nutritive components
    • No further digestive breakdown is necessary
    • Defined formula diets
  79. Types of Special Diets
    Sterile, Added Vitamins, and Fiber Level
  80. Sterile Diet
    • Lab animals; passed thru an autoclave before given out so it's completely sterilized
    • Don't want the feed to affect the study
  81. Added Vitamin Diet
    Ex: Guinea pigs need to be given Vitamin C
  82. Fiber Level
    • Different animals have different fiber requirements.
    • Pertains to larger animals (livestock, wild)
  83. Temperature of feed
    Controlled to avoid mold and spoiling; gives it a longer shelf life
  84. Humidity at which feed is stored
    Controlled in labs because food is stored in the hundreds over a longer period of time. Not a big deal for pets at home because we go thru food fast at home
  85. Vermin proof
    Avoid bugs and mice
  86. Closed Containers
    Everything is closed in case an animal escapes
  87. Clean
    Always kept clean and sterile for lab animals
  88. Stacked
    Piled up extremely high to store more
  89. Rotate stock
    Food is logged in; when it expires it's thrown out
  90. Water
    • 60-75% of our body weight is water
    • If you lose more than 15% of your body weight in water, it will result in death
  91. Water is needed for:
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism: Absorption of nutrients
    • Body temperature: Regulated thru water
    • Transport: For blood; blood needs water
    • * Animals can only go three days without water
  92. Watering Devices
    Bowls, Bottles & Sipper Tubes, Automatic, RO
  93. Bowls
    Come in all shapes and sizes
  94. Bottles and Sipper tubes
    • Different angles and different sizes/shapes
    • All made for different types and sizes of animals
    • Plastic vs. Glass bottles: Glass is cheaper to manufacture and clean, but they break easily. Plastic is costly, doesn't clean easily, and erodes over time
  95. Automatic
    • It's the preferred way, but not used here
    • Animals have a constant supply of water, cleaned with chlorine
    • Outside, the lines have to be deep enough that they don't freeze during the winter; bacteria can easily grow in the lines, so they constanly have to be flushed out
  96. RO
    • Reverse Osmosis
    • High tech process; mainly in high end, expensive labs
    • Expensive but not very efficient
  97. Water treatments
    • Physical: Boil it and then let it cool
    • Chemical: Chlorine/Bromine
    • Irradiation: UV filters so water passes thru a UV stream
  98. Softwood bedding
    Hard to the touch
  99. Hardwood bedding
    • Chips tend to be dustier and have to be changed more frequently
    • Pros: they have no odor, minimal dust, last longer (hold more urine and feces)
  100. Corn Cobs
    • Shredded corn cobs, semi-hard substance, odorless, long-lasting, dust-free
    • Expensive
  101. Paper bedding
    Soft, odorless, dusty, must be changed frequently, cheap
  102. Sawdust
    • Mainly used for livestock
    • Very absorbent, has an odor, very dusty
  103. Straw
    Dust-free but makes a mess
  104. Qualities of Good bedding
    • Dust-free
    • Non-edible
    • No pathogens
    • No toxins
    • Non-hygroscopic: doesn't attract water
    • Comfortable
  105. Euthanasia
    • Method that induces rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or stress/distress
    • Animals are never put to sleep in front of other animals
  106. Humane
    Have to have the ability to cause unconsciousness or death without pain or stress
  107. Rapid
    Fast and painless
  108. Reliable
    Everything has to work
  109. Safe
    Safe for the vet and other employees to use and be around
  110. Irreversible
    Make sure the owner doesn't change their mind after it's done
  111. Compatible
    • It has to be compatible with the requirements and what you're doing
    • Has to be appropriate for animal/species
  112. Appropriate
    • There can't be any effects later on; mainly a concern for animals that are used for food and wildlife. If there's a toxin that stays in a meat cow, it could kill the people that eat it. Same for wildlife. If the animal dies and other animals eat it, it will be a chain reaction
    • Equipment must be maintained
  113. Three basic mechanisms of Euthanasia
    • Hypoxia (taking oxygen away), direct or indirect
    • Direct depression of neurons necessary for life function
    • Physical disruption of brain activity and destruction of neurons necessary for life
  114. Three main types to euthanize
    • Inhalant (CO2 chamber)
    • Parenteral: injection
    • Physical: captive bolt
  115. Advantages of Inhalants
    • Valuable for small animals
    • Good if venapuncture is difficult or impossible
    • Non-flammable
  116. Disadvantages of Inhalants
    • Animals can struggle and become anxious
    • Ether used to be used but was too flammable
    • Both personnel and animals can be injured because of exposure to gases
    • Potential for human abuse
  117. Advantages of using CO2 as an Inhalant
    • Very rapid
    • Readily available
    • Inexpensive
    • Non-flammable
    • Not hazardous
    • No accumulation in tissues so it's good for meat and poultry
  118. Disadvantages of CO2
    • Heavier
    • Burrowing and diving animals are used to breathing in CO2
    • May take longer
    • Reptiles and amphibians breathe too slowly to get enough in to kill them
  119. Parenterals as Euthanasia
    • Most rapid and reliable method
    • Most desirable method when it can be used without causing fear or distress in the animal
    • IM, SC, and intrathecal are not appropriate because they take too long/too slow
  120. Barbituric Acid Derivatives (BADs)
    Preferred method for dogs, horses, cats, and other small animals
  121. Advantages of using BADs
    • Speed at which it works (depends on dose, concentration, route, and rate of injection)
    • Minimal discomfort
    • Less expensive
  122. Disadvantages of using BADs
    • Requires trained personnel
    • Animals MUST be restrained
    • DEA guidelines: You have to keep a DEA log. Every drop must be accounted for
    • Aesthetically objectionable
    • Drugs persist in carcasses
  123. Chloral hydrate
    Only for large animals
  124. Tricaine Methane Sulfonate
    Fish & Amphibians: It's put in the water and they breathe it in thru their gills
  125. KCL
    • Only with general anesthesia
    • Preferred method for livestock/wildlife
  126. Advantages of KCL
    No residue; nothing toxic stays in the body
  127. Disadvantages of KCL
    • Can see a lot of rippling muscle effects; spasms
    • Requires general anesthesia so personnel have to be trained
  128. T-61
    • Nonbarbiturate, non-narcotic mix of 3 drugs
    • Provide a combo of general anesthetic, curariform, and local anesthetic actions
    • Banned in US (has really nasty side effects); only used overseas now
    • Inexpensive
  129. Physical methods
    • The AWA prefers them because they are the most humane way to euthanize animals and they meet all AWA guidelines, but they're not aesthetically pleasing
    • Well trained personnel with good equipment
    • More humane, less stressful, faster
  130. Types of Physical methods
    Captive bolt, gunshot, cervical dislocation, decapitation, electrocution, microwave irradiation, kill traps, thoracic compression, exsanguination, maceration, stunning, and pithing
  131. Captive bolt
    • Gun powder or air powered
    • Good restraint essential
    • Horses, cows, swine
  132. Advantage/Disadvantages of Captive Bolt
    • Adv. - Effective
    • Disadv.: Aesthetically displeasing, death might not occur if the equipment isn't maintained properly
  133. Gunshot
    • Fastest
    • Most humane
    • Most practical
  134. Advantages of gunshot
    • Loss of consciousness is instantaneous
    • Minimizes stress of animal and family
    • Most logical method (especially with wildlife and freeroaming animals)
  135. Disadvantages of Gunshot
    • Dangerous to personnel
    • Can be difficult to hit target area (mainly for wildlife)
    • Aesthetically displeasing
  136. Cervical dislocation
    • Small rodents, rabbits, and poultry
    • Must be technically proficient
  137. Necropsy Procedure
    • Observe
    • Open body, collect samples/tissues, record lesions
  138. Purpose of Necropsy
    Diagnosis, QA, toxicology
  139. Aseptic technique
    • Does not mean sterile
    • Means without microorganisms
    • Remove or kill microorganisms, use sterile instruments, reduce client's risk of exposure to microorganisms that we can't remove
  140. Aseptic is a procedure involving:
    Wound repair, Microbiology, Cell culture, Minor surgery, Blood collection, Injections, Necropsy/Pathology
  141. Handwashing
    Most important aseptic technique
  142. Surgical scrubs
    Change out of the clothes you're wearing
  143. Using barriers
    • Anything that you're using to seperate the animal from bacteria (not necessarily an actual barrier)
    • Sterile drape, gloves, gown, mask, etc.
  144. Animal Prep
    What we do to get the animal ready/prepared; scrubbing, clipping, washing, etc.
  145. Maintaining a sterile field
    • Only bring sterile objects into the sterile field
    • If our hands go below our waist or above our shoulders, they are no longer sterile; includes from the tips of our fingers to our elbows
  146. Safe operative technique
    • Make the smallest possible incision
    • Control the bleeding so you can see what you're doing
    • Avoid trauma to surrounding tissues
  147. Safe area around procedural area
    • Clean workspace (free of clutter), minimal amount of objects in the room, not a lot of people, no dust.
    • All surgical rooms contain A/C because the surgeon's could pass out if it gets too hot, especially with full gowns on. Also, the equipment needs to be kept cold
  148. Aseptic Technique: Blood Collection
    • Visually inspect collection site
    • Feel for vein location
    • Clean as needed (Clip hair; don't shave, Soap and warm water, Betadine, Chlorhexadine)
  149. Needle and Syringe size
    • If the needle is too big, it will be too much pressure and collapse the vein
    • If it's too small, the blood will clot
  150. Needle size for mice
    25-27 gauge
  151. Needle size for rats
    23-24 gauge, 25 would be the limit because they have thicker skin
  152. Needle size for dogs
    22-20 gauge; 23 would be the smallest possible one; no bigger than 20
  153. Needle size for horses and cows
    14 gauge is most common
  154. Red top collection tube
    • Most common
    • Serum seperator
    • No anticoagulants in it
    • Has a gel at the bottom that traps the cells and keeps plasma at the top of the tube
  155. Purple top collection tube
    • Heparin
    • Used for complete blood count
  156. Technique for sterile syringe use
    • Open syringe package
    • Don't uncap until ready to use
    • Break syringe seal
    • Check that bevel is lined up with volume markings
    • Recheck stick site
    • Uncap and use syringe
    • Don't recap after use (illegal)
  157. Needles
    • Keep the bevel up
    • Higher gauge is smaller diameter
    • Don't touch anything except the stick site with the needle
  158. Vacutainer Draws
    • Attach needle to plastic sleeve
    • Uncap and stick
    • Gently push collection tube onto needle
    • Switch tubes as needed
    • Invert tubes to mix; don't shake
  159. Injections
    • Check site visually and by touch
    • May clip, if allowed by owner
    • Can wet with alcohol
    • Prepare syringe and needle
    • Fill syringe from drug bottle after wiping septum with alchol
  160. Giving Injections
    • Pull back on syringe and check for flashback
    • If going IV, you want to see blood
    • If going IM, IP, SQ, or ID, you just want air
    • One exception is urine; if you inject something into the bladder by accident, the animal will just pee it right out. Urine is also a sterile liquid, so you wouldn't have to take the needle completely out and throw it out. You can just relocate it
  161. Sterile Site Prep
    • Clip area
    • Wash with alcohol; 70% of alcohol will kill common contaminants
    • Wash with betadine (outward)
    • Can do a final alcohol rinse
    • Don't touch area with anything not sterile
  162. Surgical Prep (In order)
    • 1.) Put on cap, mask
    • 2.) Wash hands and dry well: wash your hands for 5 mins from fingers to elbows. there is usually a timer next to the sink
    • 3.) Gown
    • 4.) Gloves: you want to put gloves on last because you don't want to have to wash your hands again
    • 5.) Prepare area for sterile instruments: lay out sterile field, one partner will put on gloves
  163. Maintaining a sterile field during surgery
    • Keep hands up and clasped
    • Touch only sterile objects/areas
    • Face your sterile field
    • Keep talking to a minimum
    • Don't move around
    • Don't lean over the field
    • Keep sterile objects in the field

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