Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2)

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lrobert3
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76327
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Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2)
Updated:
2011-03-30 23:05:26
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Speech Hearing chap
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Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2)
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  1. What is sound?
    Air Pressure P=F/A

    Pressure=Force/Area
  2. Pressure is measured in
    pascals/ micropascals or "dyne"
  3. Subscript denotes the type or location of the pressure.
    • P atoms
    • P neg
    • P trach (open=same pressure)
    • P oral (open=same pressure)
  4. Air volume
    quantity of air contained ina 3-D space
  5. Air movement/ flow
    quantity of gas that move through a given area in a unit of time
  6. Boyles law
    describes relationship between pressure, and volume, and temp
  7. Pressure is high
    volume is high
  8. vibration/ oscillation
    back/ forth motin
  9. compression/rarefaction
    areas of high/low pressure
  10. elasticity/interia
    opposing forces that keep molecules in motion until acted upon by other physical law that "settle them down".
  11. sound
    changes in air pressure
  12. amplitude and damping
    frictional forces reduce the amplitude of the molecular motion thus damping the vibrations
  13. opposing forces are equal then no change
    interia
  14. Newton's lst law
    • an object in motion stays in motion
    • an object at rest stays at rest
  15. Newton's 2nd law
    when a net forces act upon an object the object acclerates in the same direction of the force.
  16. Accleration is directly proportional
    to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass
  17. F=Ma
    Force=Mass(acceleration)
  18. force is measured in
    Newtons
  19. Males have _____ vocal cords
    heavy, more mass
  20. Newton's 3rd law of motion
    for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (force)
  21. Characteristics of sound waves
    • waveform
    • freq./period
  22. Hz
    cycles/sec
  23. more cycles
    more Hz, higher pitch
  24. less cycles
    more Hz, slower pitch
  25. transverse
    molecule moves perpendicular to the direction of the wave
  26. longitudinal
    molecule moves along the same axis as the wave
  27. sine
    waveform of a pure tone, graph of the vibration
  28. wavelength
    measured from one point on a wave to the same point on the next cycle-related to the freq. of the wave
  29. pure tone
    one note
  30. complex
    speech
  31. complex sounds are
    periodic or aperiodic
  32. fundamental freq.
    Fo measured in Hz
  33. wavelength
    dension of space
  34. air
    complex
  35. Noise Harmonic Ratio
    breathy
  36. the time that each cycle in a wave takes to occur
    is its period
  37. Human vocal folds normally vibrate between
    80-500 Hz in speaking situations
  38. healthy ears
    low as 20 to high as 20, 000 HZ
  39. subsonic
    too low to be audible, may be felt
  40. ultrasonic
    too high to be audible
  41. 0 dB
    threshold of hearing
  42. 20 dB
    rustling leaves
  43. 30 dB
    conversation, sound travels faster through water
  44. "breaking sound barrier"
    traveling faster than speed of sound
  45. amplitude
    the magnitude of pressure changes in a sound and measured in micobar or micropasals
  46. the shape of a resonator is not as imporant as
    its volume when determining the freq to which it will resonate
  47. the vocal tract/ear canal are
    acoustic resonators
  48. acoustic resonator
    volume of air enclosed in a container can resonate
  49. sound consists of increases and decreases in air pressure caused by the movement of a source
    tuning fork
  50. sound waves are characterized by different dimensions of
    frequency, period, wavelength, amplitude, and intensity
  51. sound waves can consist of one frequency (?) and many frequencies (?)
    pure tone, complex waves
  52. t or f sound waves can be visually depicted on waveforms and spectra
    t
  53. amplitude and intensity of sounds can be measured conveniently on the decibel scale t or f
    t
  54. resonance involves forced vibration in which an object or container of air is set into vibration by the action of another vibration tor f
    t
  55. acoustic resonator may be sharply or broadly tuned, with different center frequencies and upper and lower cutoff frequencies t or f
    t

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