# Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2)

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1. What is sound?
Air Pressure P=F/A

Pressure=Force/Area
2. Pressure is measured in
pascals/ micropascals or "dyne"
3. Subscript denotes the type or location of the pressure.
• P atoms
• P neg
• P trach (open=same pressure)
• P oral (open=same pressure)
4. Air volume
quantity of air contained ina 3-D space
5. Air movement/ flow
quantity of gas that move through a given area in a unit of time
6. Boyles law
describes relationship between pressure, and volume, and temp
7. Pressure is high
volume is high
8. vibration/ oscillation
back/ forth motin
9. compression/rarefaction
areas of high/low pressure
10. elasticity/interia
opposing forces that keep molecules in motion until acted upon by other physical law that "settle them down".
11. sound
changes in air pressure
12. amplitude and damping
frictional forces reduce the amplitude of the molecular motion thus damping the vibrations
13. opposing forces are equal then no change
interia
14. Newton's lst law
• an object in motion stays in motion
• an object at rest stays at rest
15. Newton's 2nd law
when a net forces act upon an object the object acclerates in the same direction of the force.
16. Accleration is directly proportional
to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass
17. F=Ma
Force=Mass(acceleration)
18. force is measured in
Newtons
19. Males have _____ vocal cords
heavy, more mass
20. Newton's 3rd law of motion
for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (force)
21. Characteristics of sound waves
• waveform
• freq./period
22. Hz
cycles/sec
23. more cycles
more Hz, higher pitch
24. less cycles
more Hz, slower pitch
25. transverse
molecule moves perpendicular to the direction of the wave
26. longitudinal
molecule moves along the same axis as the wave
27. sine
waveform of a pure tone, graph of the vibration
28. wavelength
measured from one point on a wave to the same point on the next cycle-related to the freq. of the wave
29. pure tone
one note
30. complex
speech
31. complex sounds are
periodic or aperiodic
32. fundamental freq.
Fo measured in Hz
33. wavelength
dension of space
34. air
complex
35. Noise Harmonic Ratio
breathy
36. the time that each cycle in a wave takes to occur
is its period
37. Human vocal folds normally vibrate between
80-500 Hz in speaking situations
38. healthy ears
low as 20 to high as 20, 000 HZ
39. subsonic
too low to be audible, may be felt
40. ultrasonic
too high to be audible
41. 0 dB
threshold of hearing
42. 20 dB
rustling leaves
43. 30 dB
conversation, sound travels faster through water
44. "breaking sound barrier"
traveling faster than speed of sound
45. amplitude
the magnitude of pressure changes in a sound and measured in micobar or micropasals
46. the shape of a resonator is not as imporant as
its volume when determining the freq to which it will resonate
47. the vocal tract/ear canal are
acoustic resonators
48. acoustic resonator
volume of air enclosed in a container can resonate
49. sound consists of increases and decreases in air pressure caused by the movement of a source
tuning fork
50. sound waves are characterized by different dimensions of
frequency, period, wavelength, amplitude, and intensity
51. sound waves can consist of one frequency (?) and many frequencies (?)
pure tone, complex waves
52. t or f sound waves can be visually depicted on waveforms and spectra
t
53. amplitude and intensity of sounds can be measured conveniently on the decibel scale t or f
t
54. resonance involves forced vibration in which an object or container of air is set into vibration by the action of another vibration tor f
t
55. acoustic resonator may be sharply or broadly tuned, with different center frequencies and upper and lower cutoff frequencies t or f
t

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 Author: lrobert3 ID: 76327 Filename: Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2) Updated: 2011-03-31 03:05:26 Tags: Speech Hearing chap Folders: Description: Speech and Hearing #2 (chap 2) Show Answers:

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