My athletic injuries study guide

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My athletic injuries study guide
2011-03-30 22:46:42
athletic injuries midterm

sinclair athletic injuries midterm
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  1. Organization that creates guidelines for operation of an athletic care facility
    • OSHA
    • Occupational safety heath administration
  2. Conditioning program throughout various seasons to bring about peak performance
  3. Negative effect on muscle strength; can lead to injury, fatigue, or sickness
  4. How can you avoid overtraining?
    Properand effiecient resistance training, proper eating/diet, appropriate rest
  5. For muscle to improve in strength what do you have to do
    • Work it at a higher level than accustomed to
    • (overload)
  6. Controlled stretches recommended prior to activity
  7. Bouncing
    Movements with repetitive contraction of Agonist muscle; used to produce quick stretches of antagonist muscle
  8. Passively stretching by placing antagonist muscle in maximal position and holding for 30 seconds
  9. Stretching that uses a combination of alternating contractions and stretches
    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
  10. Type of training with intermittent activities; alternate periods of intense work and active recovery
  11. Type of training that is more intense over longer periods of time
  12. Training that uses surges and varies the length
    Speed play
  13. Advantages of speed play training
    Prevent boredom, good off season tool
  14. Training that alternates weight training, flexibility, calisthenics and brief aerobic exercises
  15. A circuit training typically involves
    8-12 stations, 3 sets
  16. Training technique that invokes substituting alternate activities that carry Over to a specific sport
  17. Which training method would you not use in pre-season?
    Cross training
  18. Skeletal muscle fibers in the motor unit
    Fasttwitch and slow twitch
  19. Rich in mitochondria and myoglobin; these muscle fibers carry more oxygen and resist fatigue
    Slow twitch
  20. Quick, forceful, powerful contractions, fatigue more quickly
    Fast twitch
  21. Muscle fibers used in aerobic activities
    Slow twitch
  22. Muscle fibers used in anaerobic system
    Fast twitch
  23. Type of contraction with no change in muscle length
  24. Muscle shortens in length as a contraction is developed to overcome resistance
  25. Muscle lengthens while continuing to contract
  26. When the body comes in contact with objects/surfaces results in heat loss or gain
  27. Give an example of conductive heat exchange
  28. Body heat is lost/gained by air or water movement
  29. Heat loss or gain through heat from the sun or emitted from the skin
    Radiant heat exchange
  30. Body is cooled through sweat evaporation
    Evaporative heat loss
  31. How much can a person expect to sweat per hour
    1 - 2 quarts of H2O per hour up to 2 hours (2-4 lbs)
  32. If humidity reaches 75% what happens to sweat evaporation
  33. Vomiting after periods of starvation then gorging
  34. Long term disorder that can cause stomach rupture, affect heart rhythm, liver damage, and tooth decay
  35. Disorder causes distorted body image, concerned with weight gain, deny hunger, hyperactive, abnormal amounts of exercise
    Anorexia Nervosa
  36. Sharp, burning pain in tendons, muscles, or joints
  37. Pain that is diffused at first then may localize
    • Visceral
    • (appendix)
  38. Cause of pain is emotional
  39. Pain that lasts less than 6
  40. Pain that lasts longer than 6 months
  41. Pain that occurs away from the site of irritation
  42. Over stretched by tendon, or forced to contract against too much resistance causing separation or tearing of muscle fibers
  43. When some fibers are torn, some tenderness or pain on motion, but still full ROM
    Grade 1 strain
  44. A number of fibers are torn, contraction is very painful, can ROM decreased
    Grade 2 strain
  45. Complete rupture at tendon or bone, total loss of movement or severely limited
    Grade 3 strain
  46. Legally responsible for the harm one causes another person
  47. Failure to use reasonable care or common sense
  48. Legal wrongs committed against person or property of another
  49. Participant knows and understands dangers of activity and voluntarily participates
    Assumption of risk
  50. Estimation of distance of storm
    Flash to bang
  51. How do you use flash to bang to predict danger
    Number of seconds from time see lighning until hear thunder divided bt 5; 30 or less, leave the field
  52. Electrolytes that help dehydrate the body quickly
    Sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium
  53. What is the best way to prevent dehydration
    Balanced diet
  54. If calcium is low, it causes the body to remove it from the bones, which causes weak, brittle bones
  55. How much calcium do women need daily
    1000 mg
  56. 6 domains of athletic training
    • 1. Prevention
    • 2. Eval and diag
    • 3. Immediate care
    • 4. Treatment, rehab, recondition
    • 5. Organ. and admin
    • 6. Professional responsibilities (CEC)
  57. Whose role is it for total health care
  58. Who needs to agree on injury management and rehabilitation programs
    Athletic trainer and physician
  59. Whose job is it to prevent injury
  60. Who needs to have knowledge of environmental factors and skills
  61. What year was the NATA founded
  62. What are some employment settings for athletic trainer
    Clinic, hospital, corporate, colleges, prof sports, recreation sports, military
  63. Qualities of an athletic trainer
    Empathy, humor, communication, curiosity, ethics
  64. What is involved in the pre-participation exam?
    Med history, exam, cadiovascular screening, maturity
  65. What would disqualify an athlete from participation?
    Atlantoaxial instability, cardiovascular carditis, absense of a kidney, enlarged liver or spleen
  66. Delayed pain approximately 12 hours after workout, more intense 12-24 hours and gone after 2-3 days
    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
  67. How do you prevent DOMS?
    Start at mod level, gradually increase intensity over time
  68. Treatment of DOMS
    Static or PNFstretching
  69. What overrides muscle spindle reflex by causing reflex relaxation of antagonist muscle
    Golgi tendon
  70. What causes the muscle to contract to resist stretch - save yourself
    Muscle spindles
  71. Best way to warm up
    Gradually increase cardio to moderate level
  72. Benefits of the warm up
    Prepae body for physical activity, increase blood flow to working skeletal muscles, increase metabolic and core body temp which makes the muscles more elastic
  73. What is the purpose of the cool down
    Return body to resting state, stretch decreases muscle soreness
  74. Time for warm up
    2-3 minutes
  75. Time for cool down
    5-10 min
  76. Condition when heat loss to the environment is greater than metabolic heat production
  77. Cold condition caused by periods if inactivity, wind chill factor, dampness, or wetness
  78. What happens to the body when it's temp drops to 85-90 degrees
    Shivering stops
  79. If core temp reaches <77-85 degrees
  80. How do you prevent hypothermia
    Proper appearal, layers, hat, proper warm up
  81. When skin is firm, with cold painless areas
    Frost nip
  82. Treatment for frost nip
    Pressure, blow hot breath, put in arm pits
  83. Prolonged exposure to cold causing swelling, tingling,pain in fingers and toes
  84. When skin turns pale, hard and waxy, it is most likely caused by
  85. How do you treat frostbite?
    Warm water (feels numb, stings and burns
  86. When skin is wet from sweat, it can cause
    Heat rash
  87. Prevent heat rash by
    Toweling off sweat
  88. Heat related condition that causes dizziness, fainting, nausea
  89. Treatment for syncope
    Lay down, cool place, fluids
  90. Heat related illness with muscle contraction
  91. Treatment for heat cramps
    Replace fluids, salt tablets
  92. Heat related condition where unable to sustain cardiac output, pail skin, sweating a lot, cramps with nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, headache, dizziness, loss of coordination
    Heat exhaustion
  93. Treatment for heat exhaustion
    Cool area, lay down, elevate legs, rehydrate with water if can drink
  94. Heat related condition where patient is altered, seizures, confusion, flushed, hot skin with sweating or without, shallow fast fast breathing, rapid, strong pulse, decreased blood pressure
    Heat stroke
  95. What are the five types of tissue stress
    • Compression
    • Tension
    • Shearing
    • Bending
    • Torsion
  96. Tissue stress change in cartilage, fractures, or contusion
  97. Tissue stress with shortening and widening structure
  98. Tissue stress from a pull or stretch
  99. Tissue stress including muscle strains or ligament sprains
  100. Tissue stress that is equal but not directly opposite loads
  101. Tissue stress including blisters, abrasions, vertebral disk
  102. Tissue stress on two to three points of long bones
  103. Tissue stress that involves twisting and spiral fractures
  104. Causes of stress fractures
    • Overtraining
    • Returning to activity to soon
    • Switching activities w/out proper training
    • Starting to quickly
    • Changing habits or environment
  105. What are the three phases of inflammatory response
    • Inflammatory response
    • Fibroblastic repair phase
    • Maturation remodeling phase
  106. Healing starts immediately and area may be red, tender, increase temperature, loss of function
    Inflammatory response phase
  107. Scar formation, tender to the touch, pain starts to disappear gradually
    Fibroblastic repair phase
  108. Stage may last weeks, firm, strong, nonvascular, but scar can exist for years
  109. Signs of swelling
    Redness, tenderness, increase temp, loss of function
  110. Factors that impede healing
    • Extent of injury
    • Hemerage
    • Poor vascular supply
    • Infection & bacteria
    • Humidity
    • Health, age, nutrition