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2011-04-01 16:13:03

A&P 2 blood ch 12
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  1. Normal pH of blood
    7.35-7.45/ slightly alkaline or basic
  2. Main components of blood
    Plasma and formed cell elemens
  3. Plasma
    straw-colored, liquid part of blood that seperates out at th top
  4. formed elements
    the cells in blood that settle out because they are heavier
  5. plasma components
    • water- 91%
    • solutes- 2%
    • proteins- 7%
  6. Protein categories
    • albumin
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
    • prothrombin
  7. Cloting proteins
    • Prothrombin
    • Fibrinogen
  8. Globulins
    immune proteins (antibodies)
  9. Albumin
    proteins that helps retain water in the blood
  10. Serum
    is plasma minus the clotting protiens
  11. Formed Elements
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Plateles
  12. Buffy Coat
    Thin layer of WBC's anad platelets that form the top part of the "formed elements"
  13. RBC's characteristics
    • RBC's called erythrocytes
    • formed in bone marrow
    • in formed element
    • no nucleus
    • reticulocytes
    • carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide away from cells
    • contatins hemoglobin which has iron and give RBCs and blood the red color
    • biconcave discs and flexible
  14. Reticulocytes
    young RBCs that have shed nucleus just before they mature
  15. Role of Hemoglobin
    carry oxygen to cells and tissue and carry carbon dioxide away from cells and tissue
  16. platelet characteristics
    • called thrombocytes
    • clotting cells
    • first step of clotting process where paltelets get "sticky" and clump together to form temporary clot
    • not WBC's
  17. 1st step in clotting process
    clumpin(stickyness) of platelets to form temporary plug until sequence of clotting proteins can act
  18. Final product of clotting process
    production of fibrin
  19. Hemophilia
    X-linked (transmitted by mother) bleeding disorder in which a clotting proteins can act
  20. Characteristics of WBC's
    • called leukocytes
    • five catergories
    • part of the body's defense system
  21. 5 types of WBC's
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  22. Characeristics of neutrophils
    • most numerous WBC
    • phagocytes
    • granulocyte
  23. characterisic eosinophils
    • granulocyte
    • involved in allergic reaction
    • protects against parasite infections
  24. Characteristic of basophils
    • granulocyte
    • secrete histamine and heparin
  25. Characteristics of lymphocytes
    • agranulocytes
    • involved in production of antibodies (B lymphocytes)
    • and direct atack of invading cells (T lymphocytes)
  26. Two kinds of lymphocytes
    B and T
  27. Plasma cells
    mature or activated B lymphocytes
  28. Characteristic of monocytes
    • largest WBC
    • agranulocytes
    • phagocytes (name mmeans largest eater)
    • marcrophages when enter tissue