Unit3GLY

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Unit3GLY
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GeologyUnit 3
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  1. 1. Soil scientists distinguish soil from
    regolith on the basis of the soil’s

    a. chemical composition.

    b. ability to support plant life.

    c. depth below the surface.

    d. physical texture.
    b
  2. 2. The effects of chemical weathering would
    be most evident

    a. in polar regions.

    b. in deserts.

    c. in tropical climates.

    d. at high altitudes.
    c
  3. 3. The soil horizon consisting of the most
    intensively weathered rock material is the

    a. A horizon.

    b. B horizon.

    c. C horizon.

    d. R horizon.
    a
  4. 4. The soil horizon known as the zone of
    leaching is the

    a. A horizon.

    b. B horizon.

    c. C horizon.

    d. O horizon.
    a
  5. 5. A clay-rich soil may hold a great deal
    of water; however, such a soil may not necessarily be desirable in an
    agricultural setting because clay soils

    a. are nutrient-poor.

    b. are often slow to drain due to their low
    permeability.

    c. are often too acidic for most crops.

    d. release toxic heavy metals, which are
    incorporated into plant tissues.
    b
  6. 6. Pedalfer soils are

    a. typically alkaline.

    b. characteristic of humid climates.

    c. rich in calcium carbonate.

    d. common
    soils of the western and southwestern United States
    b
  7. 7. Lateritic soils

    a. contain a high percentage of soluble nutrients.

    b. are an extreme type of pedocal.

    c. are severely leached soils.

    d. are best developed in cool, dry regions.
    c
  8. 8. Histosols are

    a. soils of deserts and semiarid regions.

    b. bog-type soils.

    c. grassland soils.

    d. soils that contain expandable clay.
    b
  9. 9. In North America, the single greatest
    cause of soil degradation is from

    a. deforestation.

    b. overgrazing.

    c. industrialization.

    d. agricultural activities.
    d
  10. 10. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s resulted
    from

    a. clearing and/or close grazing of natural
    vegetation.

    b. sustained drought.

    c. poor farming practices.

    d. All of the above choices are correct.
    b
  11. 11. Dust storms have greatly increased
    worldwide over the past two centuries primarily because of

    a. worldwide drought.

    b. deforestation and increasing cultivation.

    c. increasing urbanization.

    d. intense winds.
    b
  12. 12. All of the following can be used to
    reduce wind erosion on farmland except

    a. planting hedges or trees along field borders.

    b. planting cover crops.

    c. leaving stubble in the fields.

    d. contour plowing.
    d
  13. 13. One of the disadvantages of terracing
    is

    a. increased surface runoff.

    b. decreased infiltration.

    c. leaching of soil nutrients.

    d. its cost.
    d
  14. 14. A method of reducing soil erosion in
    which the land is not plowed before or after planting but at the time of
    planting is called

    a. contour plowing.

    b. single-step tillage.

    c. minimum tillage.

    d. nonrotational farming.
    c
  15. 15. Which one of the following is an
    environmental cost associated with increased crop productivity?

    a. increased reliance on irrigation and the
    resultant increase in the “mining” of ground water

    b. increased use of pesticides and fertilizers

    c. a six-fold increase in energy use for
    agricultural activities since 1950

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  16. 1.
    Ninety-eight percent of the earth's crust is composed of only elements.

    a. 5

    b. 8

    c. 17

    d. 23
    b
  17. 2. Which of the following does not depend
    on our geologic understanding of magmatic mineral deposits?

    a. the discovery of additional
    mineral deposits

    b. the prediction of likely
    locations of future volcanic eruptions

    c. safer mining methods

    d. better quality control of the
    mined ore
    b
  18. 3. Of the following nonfuel minerals, the
    United States has significant reserves only of

    a. manganese.

    b. tin.

    c. molybdenum.

    d. nickel.
    c
  19. 4. Some pegmatites are mined for gemstones
    such as

    a. olivine.

    b. quartz.

    c. feldspar

    d. emerald.
    d
  20. 5. The metal-rich muds at the bottom of
    the Red Sea were most likely formed as a result of

    a. magmatic crystallization.

    b. hydrothermal activity.

    c. stream-deposited sediments.

    d. evaporation.
    b
  21. 6. Severe leaching of tropical lateritic
    soils has produced economically important ore deposits of

    a. iron.

    b. copper.

    c. tin.

    d. aluminum.
    d
  22. 7. The most heavily used metal is

    a. aluminum.

    b. copper.

    c. iron.

    d. tin.
    c
  23. 8. Halite, gypsum, and phosphate are examples
    of minerals recovered from

    a. evaporite deposits.

    b. placer deposits.

    c. hydrothermal ore deposits.

    d. magmatic deposits.
    a
  24. 9. Worldwide reserves for most metals are
    projected to last

    a. a few years.

    b. a few decades.

    c. a few centuries.

    d. about 1000 years.
    b
  25. 10. The marine mineral resource having the
    greatest potential for exploitation in the near future is

    a. seawater.

    b. manganese nodules.

    c. hydrothermal deposits at
    spreading ridges.

    d. marine placer deposits.
    b
  26. 1. Oil, natural gas, and coal are examples
    of

    a. fossil fuels.

    b. hydrocarbon fuel.

    c. nonrenewable resources.

    d. All
    of the above are correct.
    d
  27. 2. As societies evolve from primitive to
    technological, the energy consumption associated with agriculture

    a. increases.

    b. decreases.

    c. remains constant.

    d. may either increase or
    decrease depending upon what foods the individuals eat.
    a
  28. 3. As heat and pressure act upon
    petroleum, it finally becomes

    a. oil.

    b. tar.

    c. natural gas.

    d. coal.
    c
  29. 4. One barrel of oil is equal to how many
    gallons?

    a. 21

    b. 42

    c. 56

    d. 100
    b
  30. 5. The nation having the largest proven
    reserves of crude oil is

    a. the United States.

    b. Kuwait.

    c. Saudi Arabia.

    d. Algeria.
    c
  31. 6. Petroleum accounts for about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 10

    b. 25

    c. 40

    d. 75
    c
  32. 7. Natural gas supplies about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 5

    b. 11

    c. 15

    d. 25
    d
  33. 8. An oil well “gusher” would be an
    example of

    a. primary recovery.

    b. secondary recovery.

    c. forced recovery.

    d. enhanced recovery.
    a
  34. 9. Geopressurized zones might one day
    become an important source of

    a. petroleum.

    b. natural gas.

    c. lignite.

    d. kerogen
    b
  35. 10. The reservoir now believed to contain
    the largest amount of carbon is

    a. the atmosphere.

    b. natural gas.

    c. coal (bituminous and
    anthracite).

    d. gas
    hydrates.
    d
  36. 11. Which one of the following fuels would
    give off the most heat per given unit weight?

    a. peat

    b. lignite

    c. bituminous

    d. anthracite
    d
  37. 12. Coal subjected to overly high
    temperatures will metamorphose into

    a. graphite.

    b. oil shale.

    c. tar sand.

    d. peat.
    a
  38. 13. The largest recoverable U.S. energy
    reserve is

    a. petroleum.

    b. coal.

    c. natural
    gas.

    d. uranium oxide.
    b
  39. 14. The worst oil spill in United States
    waters was the

    a. Santa Barbara spill

    b. Amoco Cadiz spill

    c. Exxon Valdez spill

    d. Torrey Canyon spill
    c
  40. 15. Coal supplies about percent of the energy used in the United
    States.

    a. 10

    b. 25

    c. 50

    d. 80
    b
  41. 16. The substance found in coal that
    contributes to acid rainfall is

    a. carbon.

    b. sulfur.

    c. chlorine.

    d. nitrogen.
    b
  42. 17. The environmental disaster that has
    affected the town of Centralia, Pennsylvania was caused by

    a. toxic coal-ash residue.

    b. acid rainfall.

    c. an underground coal-mine
    fire.

    d. an oil spill.
    c
  43. 18. The United States has about two-thirds
    of the world’s known resources of

    a. tar sands.

    b. natural gas.

    c. coal.

    d. oil shale.
    d
  44. 19. The hydrocarbon fuel in oil shale is

    a. petroleum.

    b. kerogen.

    c. natural gas.

    d. methane.
    b
  45. 20. All of the following are problems in
    the development of oil shale in the U.S. as a viable energy resource except

    a. extraction and processing
    technologies are not competitive with those of conventional petroleum.

    b. environmental problems
    associated with the surface mining of oil shale.

    c. the problem of waste rock
    disposal.

    d. the low quality of the oil.
    d
  46. 1.
    The fissionable isotope of uranium used in most nuclear power reactors
    is

    a. uranium-238.


    b. uranium-236.

    c. uranium-235.

    d. uranium-237.
    c
  47. 2. In the United States, most uranium
    deposits are found in

    a. limestone.

    b. granite.

    c. sandstone.

    d. rhyolite.
    c
  48. 3. Breeder reactors constitute what
    percentage of nuclear power plants in the United States?

    a. 0

    b. 6

    c. 25

    d. 65
    a
  49. 4. The accident at the Three Mile Island
    nuclear plant was caused by

    a. an earthquake.

    b. partial loss of coolant.

    c. an explosion of the nuclear
    fuel.

    d. saboteurs.
    b
  50. 5. All of the following are reasons why no
    new nuclear power plants have been ordered since 1978 except

    a. nuclear plants have higher
    fueling and operating costs than coal-fired plants.

    b. nuclear plants are more
    costly to build than coal-fired plants.

    c. nuclear plants require a long
    time to plan, build, and license.

    d. increased concerns over nuclear
    reactor safety.
    a
  51. 6. A Chernobyl-style accident would be
    unlikely at a commercial nuclear plant in the United States because

    a. American nuclear plant
    operators are better trained than Soviet operators.

    b. American nuclear plants are
    not located near cities.

    c. American commercial reactors
    use a safer nuclear fuel than do Soviet nuclear plants.

    d. the design of American
    commercial nuclear reactors is different from that of the Chernobyl reactor.
    d
  52. 7. Optimistic projections state that
    nuclear fission will supply about how much of the total energy used in the
    United States by the year 2020?

    a. one-quarter

    b. one-third

    c. one-half

    d. three-quarters
    b
  53. 8. The fuel to be used by fusion reactors
    is

    a. water.

    b. helium.

    c. uranium-236.

    d. hydrogen.
    d
  54. 9. Which of the following is a
    technological problem that must be solved before fusion reactors become a
    reality?

    a. concentrating fuel nuclei at
    extremely high temperatures

    b. containment of fusing nuclei

    c. achieving sustained
    containment time to produce net energy output

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  55. 10. Which one of the following is not an
    advantage of solar energy?

    a. It is a widely dispersed
    resource.

    b. It is an inexhaustible
    resource.

    c. It is available at no cost.

    d. It is essentially
    pollution-free.
    a
  56. 11. Maximum insolation occurs over the United States.

    a. northeastern

    b. northwestern

    c. southeastern

    d. southwestern
    d
  57. 12. Currently, the best experimental
    solarcells have an efficiency of about percent.

    a. 20


    b. 30

    c. 50


    d. 65
    b
  58. 13. Which of the following is not an
    advantage of geothermal power?

    a. It is almost pollution-free.

    b. It is competitive
    economically with other methods of generating electricity.

    c. There are no ash,
    radioactive-waste, or carbon-dioxide problems.

    d. The useful life of a
    geothermal field is nearly endless.
    d
  59. 14. Hydroelectric power provides about percent of the total energy needs of the
    United States.

    a. 4

    b. 7

    c. 12

    d. 17
    a
  60. 15. Hydroelectric power

    a. is economically competitive
    with other methods of generating electricity.

    b. supplies about 6% of all
    energy consumed worldwide.

    c. does not pollute the water
    flowing through the generating equipment.

    d. All of the above are correct.
    d
  61. 16. A major limitation of hydroelectric
    power is that

    a. it
    is renewable only as long as the streams continue to flow.

    b. it
    is a significant consumer of water.

    c. it
    is limited to the stationary nature of streams.

    d. it
    diverts water from other users.
    c
  62. 17. Which region of the United States has
    the greatest potential for the development of large-scale windmill arrays?

    a. the
    Pacific Coast

    b. the
    Great Plains

    c. the
    Rocky Mountains

    d. the
    New England states
    b
  63. 18. In 1995, wind power accounted for what
    percentage of the electric generating capacity of the United States?

    a. about 3

    b. about 7

    c. 9

    d. 20
    a
  64. 19. The biomass energy source that provides
    about one-third of Hawaii’s electricity is

    a. wastes
    from pineapple processing plants.

    b. wastes
    from sugar-cane processing plants.

    c. fish
    oil.

    d. coconut
    fiber.
    b
  65. 20. The gaseous fuel obtained from sanitary
    landfills is

    a. hydrogen.

    b. carbon
    monoxide.

    c. methane.

    d. gasohol.
    c
  66. 1.
    The largest volume of toxic wastes is generated by

    a. agriculture.

    b. municipalities.

    c. industry.

    d. research
    laboratories.
    c
  67. 2. Which of the following materials makes
    up the largest percentage of municipal wastes?

    a. paper

    b. glass

    c. garden debris

    d. plastics
    a
  68. 3. A disadvantage in using old landfill
    sites for cropland or pastureland is

    a. the absence of many important
    micronutrients needed for proper plant growth.

    b. low soil pH conditions that
    result in poor plant growth.

    c. the development of highly
    porous soils that drain away water too rapidly.

    d. the possible incorporation of
    toxic chemicals into plant tissues.
    d
  69. 4. An advantage of incineration waste
    disposal is the

    a. reduction of waste volume.

    b. destruction of toxic chemical
    elements.

    c. dilution of harmful
    substances in the ash residue.

    d. release of carbon dioxide
    into the atmosphere.
    a
  70. 5. All of the following are methods of
    reducing waste volume except

    a. compaction.

    b. composting.

    c. recycling.

    d. ocean dumping.
    d
  71. 6. The number of hazardous-waste sites
    estimated to exist in the United States is about

    a. 2000.

    b. 5600.

    c. 17,000.

    d. 30,000.
    d
  72. 7. Superfund monies are intended to pay
    for

    a. recycling pilot projects.

    b. emergency cleanup of
    abandoned toxic waste sites.

    c. the relocation of persons
    living near hazardous toxic waste sites.

    d. research into the problem of
    disposing of toxic wastes.
    b
  73. 8. The required size of a septic system
    leaching field is determined by the number of persons served and by

    a. the volume of liquid waste
    generated.

    b. soil permeability.

    c. the depth to the water table.

    d. the rate of waste
    decomposition by soil organisms.
    b
  74. 9. Radioactive particles never release

    a. alpha particles.

    b. beta particles.

    c. cosmic rays.

    d. gamma rays.
    c
  75. 10. A sample of a certain radioisotope has
    a mass of 100 grams. If the radioisotope has a half-life of 10 years, how much
    of the original radioisotope would be present after 30 years?

    a. 50 grams

    b. 30 grams

    c. 25 grams

    d. 12.5 grams
    d
  76. 11. An example of a radioisotope that is
    also a toxic chemical poison is

    a. iodine-131.

    b. iron-59.

    c. plutonium-239.

    d. strontium-90.
    c
  77. 12. The radiation source responsible for
    the highest percentage of average radiation exposure for persons in the United
    States is

    a. nuclear power plants.

    b. cosmic rays.

    c. rocks and soil.

    d. medical X rays.
    d
  78. 13. All of the following are strategies for
    disposing of high-level radioactive wastes except

    a. disposal in sanitary
    landfills.

    b. space disposal.

    c. ice sheet disposal.

    d. seabed disposal.
    a
  79. 14. All of the following properties of the
    proposed Yucca Mountain (Nevada) high-level radioactive waste site contributed
    to its selection except

    a. tuff host rock.

    b. low population density.

    c. low regional water table.

    d. absence of faults.
    d
  80. 15. Worldwide, the number of permanent
    high-level radioactive waste disposal sites is

    a. 0.

    b. 6.

    c. 15.

    d. 32.
    a
  81. The B-horizon of a soil
    A)contains most of the organic matter in the soil
    B)is where chemicals are deposited
    C)is where leaching is most effective
    D)all of the above
    B
  82. Calcium carbonate (calcite) is deposited in the B-horizon of a
    A)pedocal
    B)pedalfer
    C)laterite
    D)peat
    A
  83. Weathering is most intense in the
    A)A-horizon
    B)B-horizon
    C)C-horizon
    D)parent material beneath a soil
    A
  84. Which of the following is always involved in chemical weathering?
    A)oxygen
    B)water
    C)carbon dioxide
    D)nitrogen
    B
  85. Red color in soils results from
    A)oxidation of iron
    B)solution of calcite
    C)hydrolysis of feldspar
    D)solution of quartz
    A
  86. Soil development (weathering) is slowest in
    A)cool, dry climate
    B)cool, humid climate
    C)warm, humid climate
    D)warm, dry climate
    A
  87. Which is not a chemical weathering process?A)oxidation
    B)frost-shattering (-wedging)
    C)solution
    D)hydrolysis
    B
  88. The rate of chemical weathering is affected by
    A)temperature
    B)soil moisture
    C)soil grain size
    D)all of the above
    D
  89. Which of the following is removed by weathering from pedalfer soils but not from pedocal soils?
    A)iron
    B)calcium
    C)aluminum
    D)all are removed from both soils
    B
  90. The chemical weathering process called solution
    A)dissolves limestone and marble
    B)involves carbon dioxide and water
    C)involves carbonic acid
    D)all of the above
    D
  91. Laterite soils form in what climate?
    A)humid, temperate
    B)arid, semiarid
    C)humid, tropical
    D)polar
    C
  92. Chemical weathering is fastest in
    A)cool, dry climate
    B)cool, humid climate
    C)warm, humid climate
    D)warm, dry climate
    C
  93. The C-horizon of a soil is
    A)the most completely weathered horizon
    B)where chemicals are deposited
    C)the horizon most similar to the parent material
    D)the zone of leaching
    C
  94. The B-horizon of a humid-climate soil is red because
    A)clay minerals are deposited there
    B)calcite is deposited there
    C)iron oxide is deposited there
    D)all of the above
    C
  95. Soil is a nonrenewable resource because we are losing it faster than it forms. How long did it take to form the soils in the glaciated upper Midwest?
    A)1,000 years
    B)15,000 years
    C)100,000 years
    D)1,000,000 years
    B
  96. Soil erosion is worst from land in which type of use?A)forest
    B)grazing
    C)crops
    D)construction
    D
  97. Mechanical weathering
    A)enhances chemical weathering.
    B)inhibits chemical weathering.
    C)prevents chemical weathering.
    D)far exceeds chemical weathering.
    A
  98. Soil particle textural classes are
    A)horizons A, B, C.
    B)sand, silt, clay.
    C)mud, gravel, boulders.
    D)pedalfer, pedocal, laterite.
    B
  99. Pedalfer soils are found in
    A)cold climates.
    B)dry climates.
    C)humid climates.
    D)hot climates.
    C
  100. Laterite soils
    A)can dry to a hard cement.
    B)are a common source of iron ore.
    C)make good farming soils.
    D)prevent nearly all plant growth.
    A
  101. Lateritic soils are a problem for human use because they
    A)are so dry.
    B)lack plant nutrients.
    C)have expansive clays.
    D)have no leaching.
    B
  102. A well-drained soil is
    A)silty clay.
    B)clayey silt.
    C)loamy silt.
    D)sandy clay.
    C
  103. Most soil erosion prevention measures
    A)try to compact the topsoil.
    B)keep the topsoil covered at all times.
    C)only allow the planting of deep-rooted crops.
    D)try to slow down wind and water velocity.
    D
  104. The USDA CRP approach to erosion control emphasizes
    A)mixed crop types.
    B)complex control devices and structures.
    C)taking land out of crop production.
    D)better weather forecasting.
    C
  105. Irrigation of pedocal soils can cause
    A)calcium removal.
    B)intense leaching.
    C)rapid chemical weathering.
    D)salt buildup.
    D
  106. The bulk of our metallic mineral resources is associated withA)metamorphic rocksB)igneous rocksC)weathered materialD)sedimentary rocks
    B
  107. Hydrothermal deposits of ore minerals formA)from hot water circulating through rocksB)where chemical weathering has concentrated ore by removing non-ore mineralsC)where igneous intrusions have baked rocks which they intrudedD)all of the above
    A
  108. Large feldspar crystals are abundant in what type of ore deposit?A)pegmatiteB)sedimentaryC)metamorphicD)weathered
    A
  109. Why might certain metals be considered renewable resources while others are nonrenewable?A)renewable metals are being formed in the earth at a rate slower than our use of themB)the renewable metals are those which have been recycledC)the renewable metals are those which we are not presently usingD)the renewable metals are those which we expect to be mining from the sea floor
    B
  110. Which has the greatest world reserves (supply for the future)?A)aluminumB)copperC)leadD)zinc
    A
  111. Aluminum ore deposits areA)residual depositsB)metamorphic depositsC)placer depositsD)evaporites
    A
  112. A major type of non-metallic mineral deposit isA)placer depositB)bauxiteC)evaporiteD)manganese nodule
    C
  113. In the U.S., recycling is an important source of what metal?A)aluminumB)leadC)copperD)all of the above
    D
  114. Lateritic weathering produces which ore deposit?A)bauxiteB)placerC)evaporiteD)kimberlite
    A
  115. Hydrothermal deposits are predominantly composed of what type of ore minerals?A)evaporiteB)sulfideC)oxideD)pegmatite
    B
  116. Chromite formsA)in pegmatiteB)in hydrothermal depositsC)by crystal settling in a magmaD)as a placer deposit
    C
  117. Rock salt and rock gypsum are what kind of mineral deposit?A)evaporiteB)hydrothermalC)placerD)pegmatite
    A
  118. Gold, diamonds, and tin oxide can occur as what kind of mineral deposit?A)evaporiteB)hydrothermalC)placerD)pegmatite
    C
  119. Metamorphism of coal producesA)goldB)graphiteC)copperD)gypsum
    B
  120. Banded iron formation is what kind of mineral deposit?A)evaporiteB)hydrothermalC)placerD)sedimentary
    D
  121. Black smokers on the seafloor occur nearA)spreading ridgesB)oceanic trenchesC)subduction zonesD)all of the above
    D
  122. Diamonds are found inA)evaporitesB)pegmatitesC)kimberlitesD)laterites
    C
  123. Which mineral/rock resource is the most intensively used in the U.S.?A)sand and gravelB)evaporitesC)rock gypsumD)kimberlites
    A
  124. Manganese nodules formA)in magmasB)by lateritic weatheringC)near igneous intrusionD)on the deep sea floor
    D
  125. Which ore deposit yields aluminum?A)bauxiteB)pegmatiteC)evaporiteD)kimberlite
    A
  126. Metallic mineral deposits that are worth mining areA)ores.B)concentrates.C)kimberlites.D)pegmatities.
    A
  127. The concentration factorA)measures the size of an ore body.B)defines the same limit for any ore.C)measures the relative enrichment of ore bodies.D)must be higher for more-valuable metals.
    C
  128. Aluminum is a widely used metal because itA)is mined extensively in the United States.B)can be processed with low energy inputs.C)is both strong and light.D)is easy to extract from most silicates.
    C
  129. The most heavily used metal isA)iron.B)copper.C)gold.D)lead.
    A
  130. Waste materials left from processing mineral deposits are calledA)nodules.B)tailings.C)spoil piles.D)placers.
    B
  131. Which energy resource will last longest?A)uranium-235B)coalC)natural gasD)crude oil
    B
  132. Acid rain is caused primarily byA)nuclear power generationB)the greenhouse effectC)burning high-sulfur coalD)burning gasoline
    C
  133. Geologic maps provide an accurate estimate of future supplies ofA)oilB)coalC)natural gasD)all of the above
    B
  134. Atmospheric pollution is the worst whenA)coal is burnedB)natural gas is burnedC)uranium undergoes fission in a nuclear reactorD)geothermal heat is used to generate electricity
    A
  135. The greatest cost of coal strip-mining isA)locating the coalB)large labor forceC)damages caused by subsidenceD)reclamation of strip-mined land
    D
  136. Coal mining spoils are a potential source of what type of groundwater contaminant?A)organic matterB)PCB'sC)acidD)all of the above
    C
  137. Which is a fossil fuel?A)geothermal energyB)hydroelectric powerC)natural gasD)uranium-235
    C
  138. Which is a fossil fuel?A)geothermal energyB)hydroelectric powerC)natural gasD)uranium-235
    B
  139. Within which country are the largest proven reserves of natural gas located?A)IraqB)Saudi ArabiaC)IranD)former USSR
    D
  140. Which source could yield large amounts of natural gas in the future?A)secondary recoveryB)methane hydratesC)oil shaleD)tar sands
    B
  141. Which is the highest grade and most carbon-rich coal?A)peatB)ligniteC)bituminousD)anthractite
    D
  142. The Exxon Valdez spilledA)coalB)oilC)natural gasD)sulfuric acid
    B
  143. Which produces the most carbon dioxide when it is burned?A)coalB)oilC)natural gasD)uranium
    A
  144. Fossil fuels include all of these exceptA)oil.B)coal.C)wood.D)tar sand.
    C
  145. Commercially, the most valuable petroleum reservoirs (like aquifers) areA)low in porosity and low in permeability.B)low in porosity and high in permeability.C)high in porosity and high in permeability.D)high in porosity and low in permeability.
    C
  146. Oil and gas migrate out of their source rocks andA)down to areas of higher pressure.B)upward toward the surface.C)laterally into impermeable rocks.D)All of the above are correct.
    B
  147. Fossil fuels are found inA)sedimentary rocks.B)igneous rocks.C)metamorphic rocks.D)all of the above.
    A
  148. The 20 billion barrels of oil in Alaska's North Slope deposits would supply the United States for aboutA)20 days.B)2 years.C)20 years.D)2 centuries.
    B
  149. Using both primary and secondary petroleum recovery techniques, what proportion of the oil in an oil field is usually pumped out?A)1/3B)2/3C)1/2D)all of it
    A
  150. Geopressurized natural gas may be deep underground inA)undiscovered caves.B)high-pressure metamorphic rock.C)hot salty groundwater.D)completely inaccessible deposits.
    C
  151. New enhanced oil recovery methods can extract more oil from a reservoirA)with little additional expense.B)with no more environmental damage.C)but won't work in old oil fields.D)and so expand oil reserves.
    D
  152. Coal forms fromA)plants buried in sediment.B)thick tar that solidifies to rock.C)evaporation of algae-rich lakes.D)organic-rich volcanic ash.
    A
  153. Gasification and liquefaction techniquesA)clean sulfur from petroleum.B)refine petroleum to gasoline.C)convert coal to more versatile fuel.D)transform natural gas to liquid gasoline.
    C
  154. Oil spill clean-up experiments after the Exxon Valdez spill that were the most encouraging involvedA)hot water sprayed on the beaches.B)fertilizer sprayed on the beaches.C)workers “mopping” carefully by hand.D)just leaving the oil to nature.
    B
  155. Oil shale is currently extracted byA)pressurized pumping.B)enhanced recovery.C)strip mining.D)gasification.
    C
  156. The major drawback to fusion power isA)we do not have enough fuelB)we do not have a radioactive waste disposal siteC)we cannot carry out a fusion reactionD)it would cause a greenhouse warming of climate
    C
  157. An important reason that the U.S. is not generating much energy from nuclear fission isA)fission has not yet been successfully carried outB)we do not have fuel for fission reactorsC)we have no repository for high-level nuclear wasteD)all of the above
    C
  158. Which of the following alternative energy sources has the greatest potential for becoming a large-scale energy supply in the future?A)solarB)tidalC)geothermalD)wind
    A
  159. High-level nuclear waste that is now in temporary storage in the U.S. has been produced byA)testing of nuclear weaponsB)fusion power plantsC)fission power plantsD)all of the above
    C
  160. Breeder reactors would provide a renewable supply of fuel forA)fusion power plantsB)coal-fired power plantsC)geothermal power plantsD)fission power plants
    D
  161. Which energy resource utilizes the Earth's internal heat?A)solarB)fissionC)fusionD)geothermal
    D
  162. The amount of energy potentially available from hydroelectric power is limited primarily byA)the limited number of sites that have hot groundwaterB)the limited number of sites that have large tidal rangesC)the limited number of sites that have appropriate riversD)the limited number of sites that have sufficient wind
    C
  163. Waste disposal is a problem with which energy resource?A)fissionB)geothermalC)fusionD)all of the above
    A
  164. The main reason we presently do not utilize more solar energy in the U.S. is thatA)we do not have the technologyB)using solar would require a fundamental change in the energy industryC)cloudy weather limits the feasibility of solar energy in most placesD)there is not enough solar energy coming from the sun
    B
  165. Geothermal heat is a good energy source butA)limited to specific sites.B)unavailable in the United States.C)impractical for generating electricity.D)too expensive to ever be practical.
    A
  166. Most gasohol blends are fromA)biogas methane.B)liquefied coal.C)distilled grains.D)hydrocarbon-rich algae.
    C
  167. Expanded use of which energy resource would contribute least to global warming?A)coalB)natural gasC)solarD)oil
    C
  168. Which energy resource is renewable?A)solarB)hydroelectricC)tidalD)all of the above
    D
  169. Which is not in the top three sources of world energy production?A)coalB)natural gasC)oilD)nuclear power
    D
  170. Twenty miles per gallon is the average fuel consumption of aA)passenger carB)SUVC)busD)motorcycle
    A
  171. In the U.S., the bulk of uranium deposits are found inA)granitesB)limestonesC)sandstonesD)evaporites
    C
  172. A breeder reactor makes more of this fuel than it consumes.A)uranium-235B)plutonium-239C)uranium-238D)all of the above
    B
  173. Where are the greatest wind resources available in the U.S.?A)north-central U.S.B)northeastern U.S.C)southeastern U.S.D)southwestern U.S.
    A
  174. Why do many environmentalist groups oppose hydropower development?A)it causes pollutionB)it consumes waterC)it destroys habitat and sceneryD)all of the above
    C
  175. At Yellowstone National Park, one sees evidence of which energy resource?A)windB)geothermalC)earthquakesD)all of the above
    B
  176. Where are the solar energy resources available in the U.S.?A)north-central U.S.B)northeastern U.S.C)southeastern U.S.D)southwestern U.S.
    D
  177. Which country relies most heavily upon nuclear power for its energy?A)FranceB)Great BritainC)U.S.A.D)Russia
    A
  178. A fission nuclear reactor core meltdownA)has never occurredB)would lead to a nuclear detonationC)occurred at Three Mile Island, PennsylvaniaD)cannot occur in reactors built in the U.S.
    C
  179. Currently, the greatest use of solar energy is forA)space heating.B)electricity.C)water purification.D)petroleum refining.
    A
  180. Ocean thermal energy conversion is limited most by easy access to near-shoreA)shallow hot water.B)deep cold water.C)fast ocean currents.D)high tidal range.
    B
  181. Granite could provide a suitable site for disposal of high-level nuclear waste because it hasA)high permeabilityB)a clastic textureC)a crystalline textureD)intergranular porosity
    C
  182. Most municipal solid waste is disposedA)by ocean dumpingB)in sanitary landfillsC)by burning in incineratorsD)in dumps
    B
  183. The greatest environmental hazard presented by sanitary landfills isA)air pollutionB)destruction of habitatC)natural gas explosionsD)escape of leachate
    D
  184. Mine waste can be a source of what type of pollution?A)organic matterB)acidC)nutrientD)caustic
    B
  185. Solid waste that accumulates in reservoirs above dams comes largely fromA)coal-fired power plantsB)miningC)soil erosionD)pulp and paper production
    C
  186. The best location for a sanitary landfill isA)above the water tableB)below the water tableC)in sandstoneD)in gravel
    A
  187. Monitoring wells around a sanitary landfill are used to determineA)if the water table is decliningB)if leachate is escapingC)if artesian conditions occurD)if an aquifer is confined
    B
  188. How does the United States plan to dispose of its high-level nuclear waste?A)use rockets to launch it into spaceB)store it undergroundC)allow it to melt into polar ice capsD)allow it to sink into seafloor sediments
    B
  189. What is the problem with using sludge from sewage treatment as a fertilizer?A)it smells worse than other fertilizersB)it contains low amounts of nutrientsC)it contains high concentrations of heavy metalsD)all of the above
    C
  190. The majority of municipal sewage in the U.S.A)receives no treatmentB)received only primary treatmentC)receives only primary and secondary treatmentD)receives more that primary and secondary treatment
    C
  191. Which is utilized for deep-well disposal of liquid wastes?A)unconfined aquiferB)confined aquiferC)perched aquiferD)all of the above
    B
  192. A secure landfill is used for disposal ofA)toxic liquid wasteB)low-level radioactive wasteC)solid wasteD)high-level radioactive waste
    A
  193. The rock at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada high-level radioactive waste disposal site isA)basaltB)graniteC)rock saltD)ash-flow tuff
    D
  194. One advantage of the Yucca Mountain site is that it would be in an areaA)with no major faultsB)with no recent volcanic activityC)with few earthquakesD)located hundreds of feet above the water table
    D
  195. How much of a radioisotope will remain after three of its half-lives have passed?A)one halfB)one quarterC)one eighthD)one sixteenth
    C
  196. Plutonium-239 is a very hazardous radionuclide because it isA)produced in considerable amounts in a nuclear reactorB)has a half-life of 24,000 yearsC)is poisonous, apart from its radioactivityD)all of the above
    D
  197. Iodine-131 is a very hazardous radionuclide because itA)is biologically concentrated in the human thyroid glandB)has a half-life of 24,000 yearsC)is poisonous, apart from its radioactivityD)all of the above
    A
  198. The high-level nuclear waste repository of the U.S. must isolate waste so that fewer than 1,000 deaths are caused by the waste over how many years?A)100B)1,000C)10,000D)100,000
    C
  199. Over 90% of the radioactive waste in the U.S. isA)spent nuclear fuelB)high-level wasteC)by-products of waste reprocessingD)low-level waste
    D
  200. How do most countries in the world deal with high-level radioactive wastes?A)by temporary storageB)by bedrock disposalC)by seabed disposalD)by ice sheet disposal
    A
  201. The U.S. government created Superfund to deal withA)municipal solid waste disposalB)high-level radioactive waste disposalC)municipal sewage treatmentD)toxic-waste site cleanup
    D
  202. Love Canal was a disposal site forA)toxic wasteB)sewage sludgeC)radioactive wasteD)solid waste
    A
  203. Sanitary landfills are used for disposal ofA)solid wasteB)radioactive wasteC)liquid wasteD)sewage
    A
  204. Incinerators are used for disposal ofA)solid wasteB)radioactive wasteC)liquid wasteD)sewage
    A
  205. Leachate is most often produced in aA)secure landfillB)septic systemC)sanitary landfillD)all of the above
    D

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