psych 230 exam 3

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psych 230 exam 3
2011-03-31 02:27:46
psych exam

psych 230 exam 3
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  1. Motor Development (gross motor skill development)
    Ex: running, increase in activity levels
  2. Motor Development (fine motor skill development)
    Ex: drawing, develop slower than the gross motor skill devlopment
  3. Physical Growth
    Slower rate than in infancy
  4. Nutrition (as it pertains to physical growth)
    Internal and external cues and restriction (which may increase likelihood that child will binge)
  5. Brain Development: -glial cells and myelination
    Formation of myelin sheath, insulate axon
  6. Brain development: brain growth spurt and plasticity
    During infancy and preschool years, brain also has plasticity(flexibility)
  7. Brain development: brain lateralization
    Left and right hemispheres of brain has different functions (ex: language)
  8. Piaget’s Theory: -preoperational stage(Stage 2)
    Ages 2-7, less dependant on sensorimotor activity, use of symbolic reporsentation, have creativity and imagination, increase in the ability to form sentences (syntax), increase in number of words used, increased understanding of grammar
  9. Piaget's Theory: limitations (egocentrism)
    Thinking that does not take into account views of others
  10. Piagets Theory: limitations (Centration)
    Focus on only one aspect/dimension of object; appearence is everything
  11. Piaget's Theory: limitations (do not understand conservation)
    Do not understand that quantity unrelated to arrangement and physical appearance of objects
  12. Vygotsky’s View
    Focus on social/cultural influences; emphasized social interactions; children are “cognitive apprentices”
  13. Sense of Self (self-concept)
    Feelings about oneself
  14. Sense of self (self esteem)
    feelings about oneself
  15. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (Stage 3)
    Initiative vs guilt (ages 3-6 years; child asserting independence, boundaries still necessary
  16. Understanding Gender (gender roles)
    Roles that society/culture deems appropriate for males or females
  17. cognitive developmental theory (gender identity)
    Sense of being male or female; achieved at or around 2 years
  18. Cognitive development theory (Gender shemas)
    frameworks to help child organize information relevant to gender, view world through "lens of gender"
  19. Cogntive development (Gender consistancy)
    Understanding weather a person is male or female and this does not change with superficial changes in appearance, achieved at around age 4-5 years
  20. social learning theory
    Focus on environment, focus on learning
  21. biological Theory
    Hormones, brain differences (hypothalamus is larger in heterosexual males)
  22. Agression
    Intentionally inflicting physical and/or psychological harm on others
  23. Piaget’s view on moral development
    Heteronomus morality (ages 4-7 years, rules are seen as inchangable)
  24. social learning theory as it pertains to moral development
    View that morality is learned
  25. Prosocial Behavior
    Helping behavior
  26. empathy
    understanding what others are feeling
  27. Types of Play (associative play)
    Children shares materials but do not coordinate activites
  28. Parenting Styles (Auithoritative)
    lots of warmth and control
  29. Parenting Styles (Authoritarian)
    little warmth, lots of control
  30. Parenting Styles (Permissive)
    lots of warmth, little control
  31. Parenting Styles (uninvolved)
    little warmth and control
  32. Piaget’s Theory (concrete operational, stage 3)
    Ages 7-12 years, characterized by the ability to organize and use logic to solve problems, less egocentric, understand conservation
  33. Motor development
    grossd and fine motor skills continue to increase
  34. Physical Growth
    growth rateslower than during preschool years
  35. extreme shortness
    Height is two or more standard deviations below average
  36. Idiopathic short stature
    Extreme shortness with unknown cause (treatment can include rhGH)
  37. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    Symptoms include inattention., low impulse control, low frustration tolerance, inappropriate activity
  38. Origins of intelligence testing (Binet)
    Based on observation and testing of many children in france, compared mental age and chronological age
  39. fluid intelligence
    Problem solving, reasoning, memory
  40. crystallized intelligence
    Knowledge gained over time (experience)
  41. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory: Componential (all equal and independent)
  42. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory:Experiental (all equal and independent)
  43. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory:contextual (all equal and independent)
    common sense
  44. Mental Retardation:criteria
    IQ below 70
  45. Mental Retardation:four levels
    mild, moderate, severe, profound
  46. Vygotsky’s Approach:Zone of proximal development
    higher achievment when working with someone more skilled
  47. Vygotsky’s Approach:Scaffolding
    As child becomes more skilled at task, amount of help decreases
  48. Vygotsky’s Approach:Cooperative learning
    Children working together to achieve common goal
  49. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (stage 4 industry vs inferiority)
    Ages 6-12 years, increased social comparison, emphasis on school and achievement, self esteem may be affected
  50. Attributions: -internal (dispositional) attributions
    Dispostional attribution, attribute behavior to the person
  51. Attributions: External (situational) attributions
    Situational attribution, attribute behavior to situation
  52. Self serving bias
    Tendency to make internal attributions for successes, external attributions for failure
  53. stable attributions
    applies across situations
  54. temporary cause
    applies to that specific situations
  55. Emotional Intelligence
    Skills that underlie emotional evaluation, regulation, expression
  56. Kohlberg’s stage theory (Level 1: preconventional morality)
    Focus on self (stage 1:punishment orientation; stage 2: reward orientation)
  57. Kohlberg’s stage theory (Level 2: Conventinal morality)
    Focus on others view of self (stage 3: good boy/girl orientation; stage 4: authority orientation)
  58. Kohlberg’s stage theory (Level 3: postconventional morality)
    Focus on others (stage 5: social contract orientation; stage 6: ethical principle orientation)
  59. Gilligan’s stage theory for women:Stage 1
    self orientation (focus on self)
  60. Gilligan’s stage theory for women:Stage 2
    goodness and self sacrifice (focus on others)
  61. Gilligan’s stage theory for women:Stage 3
    morality of nonviolence (focus on others and self)
  62. Three stages of friendship (Damon) Stage 1: focus on others behavior
    Ages 4-7, friendship based on sharing toys and playing with child
  63. Three stages of friendship (Damon) Stage 2: focus on trust
    Ages 8-10, friendship based on greater emphasis on personal qualities and mutual trust
  64. Three stages of friendship (Damon) Stage 3: focus on psychological closeness
    Ages 11-15+, friendship based on greater emphasis on loyalty, intimacy, trust