Cognitive Neuroscience

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Cognitive Neuroscience
2011-03-31 03:24:21

Exam #2
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  1. What is attention
    A cogntive system that allows for preferential processing of relevant information while ignoring irrelevant or distracting information
  2. Three types of attention
    • Alerting
    • Orienting
    • Monitoring
  3. Dysfunction in each attentional system
    • Alerting: Anxiety
    • Orienting: Depression
    • Monitoring: ADHD
  4. Coordination of attention with ____and _____
    active interplay between internal and external stimuli for attention
  5. How is attention instantiated in the brain?
    early vs late
  6. Alerting
    • Vigilance: ability to retain alertness continuously over time (sustained attention)
    • Arousal: (involves ANS, SNS)
    • Overall level of wakefulness

    Measured with: Galvanic Skin Response

    • Brain regions involved:
    • Reticular Activating System
    • cell bodies of the pons and medulla

    • Hyper-alerting: panic anxiety
    • Hypo-alerting: ignore dangerous stimuli
  7. Orienting
    • Selectively some info for futher processing at the expense of other stimuli
    • Broadbent's info processing bottleneck
    • Attenuation Theory (Triesman): Processing of info at the unattended channel is diminished, while processing increases as the ignore info becomes relevant to the task at hand

    • Tests:
    • Dichotic Listening Task
    • Shadowing Task
  8. Dichotic listening task
    • information comes in both ears and told to attend to one of the channels.
    • Much of message from unattended is not "heard"
  9. Info Processing Bottleneck
    Sensory input->Perceptual Analysis->Semantic Analysis->Response selection and execution
  10. Cocktail party effect
    Ability to focus one's attention on a single speaker in a cacophony of conversations and background noise
  11. Breakthrough phenomenon
    • Items pass through the unattended channel if they have some semantic meaning
    • -our name
    • -sex words
    • -george carlin words
  12. Neutral vs name stimuli
    greater attenuation for neutral
  13. Posner Cuing Paradigm
    lets us control for perceptual input and eye movement
  14. endogenous target
    must actively decide to put your attention there, larger cuing effect (difference between invalid and valid)
  15. Exogenous target
    • brigher luminance or larger target
    • stimulus draws attention itself
    • smaller attentional cuing effect
  16. Attentional Costs
    Difference between the neutral and invalid conditions
  17. Attentional Benefits
    Difference between neural and valid conditions
  18. Attentional Cuing Effect
    Difference between the invalid and valid conditions
  19. Early vs Late selection
    • Early (perceptual):
    • 1. not able to remember information from unattended channel
    • 2. perceptual factors influence attentional cuing effects

    • Late (Response selection)
    • breakthrough phenomenon/attenuation theory