speech and hearing #3

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speech and hearing #3
2011-03-31 11:27:01
speech hearing

speech and hearing #3
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  1. High Fo in infants
    increases with age
  2. Changes in gender, age
  3. Male Fo drop at puberty, female
    unchanged or decreases slightly
  4. Average amp refers to overall level of
    amp during a speech task-loudness.
  5. Amp. depends on a context of the
  6. look for physical reasons
    for reduced amp.
  7. Max. Phonational Freq. Range
    the complete range of freq. that an individual can produce, not hibtual Fo
  8. 3 octabes is normal for young adults
    slightly decreased with age
  9. Voice range profile
    plots a person's phonational range against his dynamic range
  10. functional causes
  11. organic
    tumors, polyps
  12. ipsilateral
  13. contralateral
  14. Frequency measures typically used in clinical settings include average
    Fo, speaking Fo, Fo range, and maximum phonational frequency range.
  15. Typically used amplitude measures include
    average amp, amp variability, and dynamic range.
  16. the voice range profile plots a person's maximum phonational freq range
    against his or her dynamic range at different freq and acts as a snapshot of phonatory behavior
  17. Freq and amp variables related to voice use are used in clinical situations
    to make diagnostic decisions, supplement perceptual judgments of voice, and asess outcomes of treatment.
  18. Neurologic diseases are often characterized by
    problems int he control of vocal freq and amp
  19. articulators
    movable and immovable
  20. pulmonary system
    lungs, airways
  21. chest wall system
    rib cage, abdomen, diaphragm
  22. upper res. system
    oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx
  23. lower res system
    larynx, bronchial system, lungs
  24. diaphragm
    • streches from one side to the rib cage to the others
    • makes up the floor of the thoraic cavity and roof of addominal cavity
    • shaped like a dome at rest and flattens when it contracts, thus increasing the volume of the throaic cavity
  25. intercostals
    muscles between the ribs - 11 pair
  26. fibers run in ___________ directions
  27. external intercostals pull the rib cage
    upward and outward during inspiration thus increasing thoraic cavity volume
  28. internal intercostals
    pull rib cage downward and inward during inspiration thus decreasing thoraic cavity volume
  29. diaphragm ______when you inhale
  30. accessory muscles are _________ for deeper inspirations
  31. abdominal muscles are ______ for exhalation
  32. pleural linkage
    negative pressure within the pleural space. Pleural space is between the viseural (covers outside of each lung) and parietal pleura (covers inside)
  33. bring air into lungs
    • increase the volume of thorax and lings causing P alv to be negative
    • rib cage upward and outward
  34. decreasing P alv draws air
    in through mouth or nose
  35. P alv falls below P atoms at the peak of
  36. The air travlels thru the bronchial tree
    reaching the alveoli. Gas exchange occurs. Fresh oxygen is delvered into the bloodstream and waste (carbon dioxide) is removed/exhaled.
  37. Rib cage muscle bulk
  38. Tidal volume inhaled and exhaled during a cycle of
  39. inspiratory reserve volume
    volume that can be inhaled above tidal volume
  40. expiratory reserve volume
    volume that can be exhaled below tidal volume
  41. residual volume
    volume remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration that cannot be voluntarily expelled
  42. resting expiratory level
    the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system
  43. 4 major changes in the respiration switch from
    • vegetative to speech breathing
    • location of air intake
    • ration of time
  44. breathing for life
    • unconscious, automatic
    • rate/volume-need at that time
    • occurs through the nose
    • exhalation/inhalation (2 sec apart)
    • exhalation is passive
  45. breathing for speech
    • need for gas exchange
    • respiration involved with prosody
    • occurs through the mouth
    • exhalation is active
  46. gravity
    pulls downward on rib cage forcing throax and lungs to decrease in volume.
  47. Hixon's 4 Respiratory features
    • pressure
    • volume
    • airflow
    • chest wall shape
  48. pressure
    the forces generated by the respiratory process, power supply for speech
  49. strongest oral pressures generated during
    the close portion of a voiceless stop /p/
  50. too much or too little air permitted through any given "value" in the system results in a
    disorder voice
  51. volume
    the amount of air in the lungs and airways
  52. chest wall shape
    kinesthetically measured
  53. speech breathing does not
    require much more air
  54. the respiratory consists of the pulmonary system (lungs and airways) and the chest-wall system
    (rib cage, abdomen, and diaphragm)
  55. Inhalation and exhalation occur when P alv decreases and increases, forcing air
    into and out of the system.
  56. Lung volumes and capacities refer to different amounts of air in the lungs at a given time; these amount
    change over the lifespan.
  57. Change occur when breathing for speech:
    location of air intake, ratio of inhalatory to exhalatory time, volume of air per cycle, and muscle activity for exhalation
  58. Breathing patterns for speech are influenced by lingusitic considerations
    including speaking task complexity, clause boundaries, and loudness of the intended utterance.
  59. Speech breathing changes over the lifespan
    due to changes in the structure and function of the respiratory system.
  60. Two general principles apply to the clinical managemnet of respiratory function:
    paitent's static and dynamic respiratory ability must be measured, treatment must be tailored to the patient's specific breathing difficulty.
  61. Patients with Parkinson's disease may have a different chest wall shape than normal because of
    rigidity of the chest wall muscles.
  62. Patients with cervical spinal cord injury may not be able to breathe on their own
    and may need mechanical ventilation; if he or she can breathe they may have difficulty generating adequate pressures and flows for speech.
  63. Many children and adults with cerebral palsy face problems with respiratory function affecting
    pressure, flow, volume, and shape.
  64. Several problems exist in speaking on a mechanical ventilator,
    high tracheal pressures generated and rapidly changing pressures.
  65. Subtle problems in respiratory function may occur
    in some voice disorders and in hearing problms.