HIS 315L Exam 1 Topic 1

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Author:
alexjking
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7644
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HIS 315L Exam 1 Topic 1
Updated:
2010-02-21 22:40:41
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History
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Exam 1, Topic 1... The half-century after the end of the Civil War was a period of rapid, transformative change in the United States, as it evolved into an industrial society. At the same time, it is clear that as Americans adjusted to these new industrial conditions, they didn't simply shed their old identities and embrace wholly new sets of values and patterns of life. Rather, they often attempted to combine what they cherished from the past with what they valued in the present and desired for the future. If this topic is selected for the exam, you will be given a list of four different groups of Americans, and for each of three you will have to analyze how it responded to the modern American industrial society by adhering to existing traditions, abandoning those traditions for new values and practices, or combining some of each.
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  1. Northern
    The civil war accelerated and justified the northern way of life, it also solidified partnerships between business and government.

    • Northern values defeated those of the south:
    • Industry & Competition (North)
    • Individualism (North): the belief that a good society must be based upon competition between individuals. Individuals are held responsible for shaping their own destinies.
    • Communalistic view (south): all people are born with a fixed status and those with more status help those without. This social order fell apart during the civil war, Planters paid their way out of having to serve, poor white males weren’t happy. a rich man’s war and a poor man’s
    • fight.

    • ANSWER: The north responded by adhering to their existing traditions after the civil war. Nothing really changed for them; their way of life was even justified and moved forward.
    • Partnerships between businesses and the government were stronger. They also held on to key values such as individualism (definition).
  2. Southern
    • Had their values defeated by the north:
    • Individualism (North): the belief that a good society must be based upon competition between individuals. Individuals are held responsible for shaping their own destinies.
    • Communalistic view (south): all people are born with a fixed status and those with more status help those without. This social order fell apart during the civil war, Planters paid their way out of having to serve, poor white males weren’t happy. a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.

    Was affected by Lincoln and the radical republicans trying to abolish slavery, once Lincoln was assonated the threat was less evident. Black codes were implemented

    Republicans wanted to divide up the planter’s plantations but instead sharecropping became the norm. Congress finally tried to pass the civil rights act and affectively passed the 14th amendment.

    • Preserved old traditions although eventually the south did have to abolish slavery they still used segregation as a way to maintain white supremacy.
    • Forced labor, inequality
    • Used prisons’ to make blacks’ slaves again, and this did not violate the 13th amendment because they were being punished for a crime.

    ANSWER: The south combined their existing traditions with new ones. They had the north’s values imposed on them after the war and dealt with the radical republicans trying to abolish slavery. Once slavery was abolished the south did not let go without a fight they held onto their existing traditions of white supremacy by using segregation as a means to separate and divide themselves. They kept the idea of inequality and forced labor like using blacks as workers in prisons.
  3. Radical Republicans
    • Wanted to reform the south (abolish slavery)
    • Only partially successful because:
    • The northern public wasn’t interested in fighting for equal rights for blacks especially since they had just paid to support a very costly war. Both before and after the war the north never really cared about black civil rights and there was still segregation.

    Lincoln was assassinated and replaced by VP Andrew Johnson who supported slavery before the war; however he was not a supporter of the planter class, who controlled too much slavery.

    • Johnson’s government instituted Black codes (laws that restricted the freedom of black residents)
    • Vagrancy laws: a vagrant was considered one who had left slavery and was seeking employment. Laws restricting asses to employment: long-standing fear among whites that if the job market was open to blacks there would be a lot of job competition
    • Laws prohibiting “mischief”: law enforcement could use this as a bias to lock blacks up for anything.

    • Radical rep. wanted to break up the plantations and divide the land “40 acres and a mule” but instead sharecropping became the norm (blacks would work the land and they would pay their rent in a share of the profits from the crops).
    • Congress tried to outlaw the Black codes with the Civil rights act, President Johnson vetoed it and then congress overrode the veto.Congress then sent the 14th amendments to the states.(defined citizenship as being born in the US, laws protected everyone equally)

    The south because of these laws settled into a new order that wasn’t slavery but it was pretty close.

    ANSWER: The radical republicans wanted to abandon existing traditions for new one however they were forced to combine both.
  4. Immigrants
    Had to adjust to this new way of working in the factories with machines.

    • Factory work eliminated the social aspect of work. Less of an opportunity to interact with other people. They needed to focus on not losing a limb, and besides, the machines are loud
    • The clock became a fixture in factory environments to guarantee the efficiency needed. Factories needed to measure output through unit of time instead of working in an environment more relaxed, more dependent on weather or seasons or daylight

    No more room for cultural expression

    There was a general feeling of a loss of control over the conditions of work

    Immigrants went from agricultural work to factory

    • Workers felt a loss of control over work-when work happens, how im compensated (less control than ancestors)The majority immigrants
    • tried their best to retain what they grew up with. But very quickly their kids adapted to the new environment of individualism. How can I get candy? How can I make money? How can I succeed in competing with my friends?
  5. Children
    • Had to adapt to the street life

    • Children of the City...

    An example of revisionism

    Childhood was difficult and dangerous

    Children grew up too quickly

    Attributes a lot of perspective to reformers pushing their views onto them

    A period of empowerment of children

    Autonomy, solidarity

    • life they lived pushed them to want to be better
    • They worked for a reason
    • Understand that life is about entertainment and they save their money to be able to experience that
    • Have to get ahead by being ruthless
    • Ttheir values used to make sense, but not anymore
    • Romanticizes individualism in the book, but ends it by stating that it doesn't really work
    • Work was almost an adventure
    • Less intrinsically satisfying
    • Complete absence of adults
    • Parents are trying to over-parent in the modern times
    • Too much protection can suppress development
    • Every other institution in their lives is an adult institution (school, home)

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