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Types of Cellular Transport
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Active Transport
- Secondary Active Transport
Communication: Endocrine System
Communication: Nervous System
Communication: Paracrine System
- Local mediator hormones only
- Form of cell signaling in which the target cell is near ("para" = near) the signal-releasing cell.
- General formula for carbohydrates
Nucleotides components (3)
- A pentose (5-carbon) sugar arranged in a ring called deoxyribose
- An organic nitrogenous base
- A phosphate group
- Guanine triphosphate
A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance
- precursors for enzyme cofactors
protiens that catalyze
Catalysis is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst
substrate is the chemical species being observed, which reacts with a reagent
Part of an enzyme where substrates bind and undergo a chemical reaction
Enzyme Substrate complex
An enzyme-substrate complex uses the reactants(substrates) and the enzyme. The enzyme is like a catalyst that reduces the required activation energy and speeds up the chemical reaction.
Non protein species required by the enzyme to function, that are NOT permanently attatched to the enzyme
Non-protein species required by the protein to function, that ARE permanently attached to the enzyme
a general term for any species required by the enzyme to function; coenzymes and prosthetic groups are both examples of cofactors
Reaction Rate vs Substrate Graph
Vmax is the maximum initial rate of an enzyme catalysed reaction,ie,when virtually all the enzyme present in the reaction mixture is present as enzyme-substrate complex.
Reaction Rate vs Substrate Graph
Km is the Michaelis-Menten constant,(Km= (K2+K3)/k1),it is the substrate concentration at which the initial reaction rate is half maximal.
At the active site, overvome by increasing substrate
Away from the active site, changes shape
bonds covalently and permanently diables enzyme
- Positive feedback
- negative feedback
- Allosteric regulation: regulation away from the active site
Sum of all chemical reactions in the body
the breackdown of macromolucles into smaller species to harvest energy
no oxygen used
requires oxygen to grow
Organism, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation
microorganisms that live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen
Pyruvate produced per glucose-
- Pyruvate- 2 formed
- ATP- 4, net of 2
- NADH- 2
- ADP 2
- NAD+ 2
Substrate Level phophorylation
a type of chemical reaction that results in the formation and creation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate
In addition to the substrate-level phosphorylation that occurs during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. During oxidative phosphorylation, NADH is oxidized to NAD+, yielding 2.5 ATPs, and FADH2 yields 1.5 ATPs when it is oxidized.
reversal of glycolysis
Regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate).
- The citrate then goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing two carboxyl groups as CO2. The carbons lost as CO2 originate from what was oxaloacetate, not directly from acetyl-CoA. The carbons donated by acetyl-CoA become part of the oxaloacetate carbon backbone after the first turn of the citric acid cycle. Loss of the acetyl-CoA-donated carbons as CO2 requires several turns of the citric acid cycle. However, because of the role of the citric acid cycle in anabolism, they may not be lost, since many TCA cycle intermediates are also used as precursors for the biosynthesis of other molecules.
- Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming NADH. For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced.
- Electrons are also transferred to the electron acceptor Q, forming QH2.
- At the end of each cycle, the four-carbon oxaloacetate has been regenerated, and the cycle continues.
Krebs Cycle products
- one ATP,
- three NADH,
- one QH2,
- two CO2.