glaucoma meds

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Author:
sgustafson
ID:
76467
Filename:
glaucoma meds
Updated:
2011-04-17 13:30:33
Tags:
glaucoma
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Description:
glaucoma meds blk4
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  1. Acetazolamide
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
    • prophylaxis/treatment of altitude sickness, glaucoma
    • reduction of intraocular pressure, reduction in aqueous humor production
  2. brimonidine (apraclonidine, clonidine)
    • alpha2 adregneric agonist
    • open-angle glaucoma, ocular HTN
    • reduces aqueous humor production and uveoscleral outflow w/o mydriasis
    • SE: xerostomia (dry mouth), blurred vision, occular irritation
  3. dorzolamide
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-II): selective control of aqueous humor production and IOP
    • topical
  4. latanoprost
    • F2alpha prostagladin agonist
    • treats elevated IOP
    • prodrug, topical
    • increased uveoscleral outflow
    • SE: increases amount of brown pigment, burning/stinging, blurred vision
  5. mannitol
    • parenteral osmotic diuretic, emergency reduction in IOP
    • SE: pulmonary congestion, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, acidosis, dry mouth, urinary retention, edema
  6. timolol
    • nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist
    • reduces aqueous humor production by preventing Na+ from entering into aqueous humor
    • SE: none?
  7. Sympathetic innervation of eye
    • dilator pupillae: mydriasis
    • via superior cervical ganglion/internal carotid
  8. Parasympathetic innervation
    • sphincter pupillae: miosis
    • ciliary body: accomodation
    • via oculomotor nerve/ciliary ganglion
  9. What effect will an alpha1 agonist have on the eye?
    • mydriasis
    • (no loss of accomodation/cycloplegia)
  10. What effect will a muscarinic antagonist have on the eye?
    • blocks contraction of ciliary body, preventing accomodation
    • blocks contraction of the sphincter pupillae, causing mydriasis
    • therefore, if loss of accomodation, mydriasis must be present!
  11. open-angle glaucoma
    • obstruction of aqueous drainage
    • incr. of intraocular pressure can damage the optic nerve
    • "cup" becomes larger
    • only treatment of this is reduction of IOP
  12. What classes of drugs increase aqueous humor outflow?
    • parasympathomimetics (trabecular network)
    • prostagladin agonists (uveoscleral outflow)
  13. What classes of drugs decrease aqueous humor secretion?
    • beta blockers
    • alpha2 adrenergic agonists
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  14. What is the "angle"?
    between iris and cornea

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