White Lectures

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Author:
pretty4Jesus
ID:
76482
Filename:
White Lectures
Updated:
2011-03-31 18:38:23
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Neuroscience Block
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Description:
Neurocytology/anatomy
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  1. Neurons
    • 100 billion (300 billion glia cells tho)
    • Dendrites- graded changes in electrical pot, mag dep on size and xomplexity of aborization
    • Axons- NOT graded; highway to and from body- Ms, MT-assoc. proteins, neurofilaments
  2. Fast axon transport- anterograde
    • Fast anterograde- 200-400 mm/day; kinesin;
    • -membrane proteins, lipids
    • -NTs
    • -SVs
    • -mitochondria
  3. Fast axon transport- retrograde
    • fast retrograde: 200-300 mm/day; dyenin
    • -trophic factors
    • -lysosomal vesicles, old membrane components
  4. Slow axon transport- anterograde ONLY
    • Slow anterograde
    • 1. SCa: 0.2-1 mm/day
    • 2. SCb: 2-8 mm/day (rate of axonal growth also)

    • -Cytoskeletal proteins (neurofilaments, MTs)
    • -NZ of itnermediary metabolism
  5. Gray Matter- CNS
    • Neuronal perikarya
    • Dendrites
    • Synapses

    • Axons
    • Astrocytes (adjacet to cell bodies)
    • Oligodendroglia
    • Microglia
    • *glia not in PNS
  6. White Matter CNS
    • Axons
    • Oligodendroglia (surrounding axons)

    • Astorcytes
    • Micoglia
  7. Glia in CNS (not in PNS)
    • "nerve glue"
    • supprotive cells
    • "barrier systems"

    • 1. Astrocytes
    • 2. Oligodendroglia
    • 3. Ependyma
    • 4. Microglia
  8. Astrocytes
    • "star-like" elaborate processes
    • flimaentous proteins: glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), vimentin
    • between bv's and neurosn= BBB
    • isolate or insulate synapses and neuronal processes
  9. Astrocyte connections
    • have foot processes that make connections
    • 1. astrocyte to n's w/o synapses
    • 2. astrocyte to n's w/ synapses
    • 3. astrocyte to astrocyte
    • 4. astrocyte to brain surface
    • 5. astrocyte to capillary
    • 6. astrocyte to axon (small axons don't have olig. but astrocyte instead)
  10. Oligodendroglia
    • literally "fewer processes"
    • lipid-rich myelin in olig membranes, enable saltatory conduction
    • 2 config: gray= adj to cell bodies; white= surrounding axons (think perifasicular arrangement)
    • 1 olig can wrap around many axons
  11. Ependyma
    • forms epithemlium that lines ventricular system of CNS
    • barrier between brain and CSF
    • simpliar to CSF-producing choroid plexus
  12. Microglia
    • "scavenger cells"- remove debris at sites of injury or normal turnover (like macrohphages)
    • only glial cell not neuroectoderm-derived, but mesenchymal
  13. PNS
    • A,O, & M NOT in PNS
    • Schwann cell- principal supporting cell of PNS
    • <1 um diam= unmy, still invested by Scell; 1 Scell can assoc with many unmyl axons
    • >1 um diam= myl, myelin sheath, 1 Scell assoc with only 1 internode on a single axon
  14. Dendrites
    dendritic spines: increase SA; lacking in Down Syndrome->disruption in interneuronal communication
  15. Axons
    difuse axonal injury- traumatic ijury, can lead to motor peripheral neuropathies
  16. Glia issues/disease/problemas!
    • Astrocytes- "fibroblast of brain"; scar tissue= gliosis
    • Oligo- "leukodystrophies"- loss of myelin from CNS
    • Microglia- not "target" of disease, but lots seen when there's injury

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