Psychology 101 Chpt 4.txt

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Psychology 101 Chpt 4.txt
2009-11-04 20:22:07
Psychology 101

Chapter 4
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  1. developmental psychology
    a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
  2. zygote
    the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
  3. embryo
    the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
  4. fetus
    the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
  5. teratogens
    agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
  6. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
  7. rooting reflex
    a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open mouth and search for the nipple.
  8. habituation
    decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
  9. maturation
    biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
  10. schema
    a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
  11. assimilation
    interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
  12. accommodation
    adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
  13. cognition
    all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication.
  14. sensorimotor stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years old of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
  15. object permanance
    the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
  16. preoperational stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage ( from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
  17. conservation
    the principle ( which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remains the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
  18. egocentrism
    in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's inability to take another's point of view.
  19. theory of mind
    People's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and behaviors these might predict.
  20. concrete operational stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during ehich children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
  21. formal operational stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
  22. stranger anxiety
    the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
  23. attachment
    an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
  24. critical period
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
  25. critical period
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
  26. imprinting
    the process by which certain animals from attachments during a critical period very early in life.
  27. basic trust
    according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy;said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
  28. adolescence
    the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from purity to independence.
  29. puberty
    the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
  30. primary sex characteristics
    the body structures ( ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible.
  31. secondary sex characteristics
    nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
  32. menarche
    the first menstrual period.
  33. identity
    one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
  34. intimacy
    in Erikson's theory of, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
  35. menopause
    the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
  36. cross-sectional study
    a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
  37. longitudinal study
    research in which the same people are restudy and retested over a long period.
  38. crystallized intelligence
    one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
  39. fluid intelligence
    one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
  40. social clock
    the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriages, parenthood, and retirement.