Conservation Exam 3

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AJWLion
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76500
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Conservation Exam 3
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2011-04-19 14:19:03
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Conservation Exam 3
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  1. Water Use
    • ~30% of world’s fresh water used by people
    • ~70% for irrigation
    • ~20% in industry
    • ~10% residential
  2. Water Deficits
    • Deficit is not noticeable (made up by aquifer overpumping)
    • Problems most serious in these countries and/or areas: China, The Indian subcontinent, The Middle East, North Africa, North America
  3. 1000 m3/person/year
    • In 18 countries, water supplies are insufficient
    • By 2050, water supply insufficient in ~39 countries
    • ~1.7 billion people will have too little water to fulfill basic needs
  4. Aquifer
    • Area that is super saturated
    • with water, in which water can be drawn out of it.
  5. Recharge Rates
    • Rate at which aquifers are replenished.
    • Frequently exceeded by our water use. Rates vary quite a bit, as do the amount that water is being removed.
    • We draw about 2/3 of the recharge rate out of local aquifers.
  6. Fossil Aquifers
    Were being recharged in the past, however the weather situation has changed.
  7. Black Hills Aquafers
    • Deadwood
    • Madison
    • Minnekata
    • Minnelusa
    • Inyan Kara
  8. Reducing flooding and damage from flooding
    • Don’t remove or “reclaim” wetlands
    • Don’t remove upland vegetation
    • Don’t remove streamside vegetation
    • Don’t channelize streams
    • Don’t build in floodplains
  9. Salinization
    • Occurs where you irrigate arid areas.
    • Brings salt out of the gound, turning it into a salt pan.
    • Vegetation doesn't recover in this area.
  10. Ogalala Aquifer
    • Supplies water to about 20% of the area.
    • Recharge rate extremely low.
    • Most of the recharge has come from ice melt from the last iceage.
    • Conversion of land to corn should increase water use.
  11. Glacial lakes: “Prairie Potholes”
    • This region is the biggest region for the production of waterfowl for the country.
    • Has suffered a reduction of about 50% of ponds and 50% of water fowl populations.
    • The ponds are disappearing because of drought.
  12. Point vs Non-Point Pollution
    • EPA Regulations Point-Source Pollution (Can be followed back to a source.)
    • Most of the pollution in the US and worldwide is from non-point sources (Running across the land, carrying pollutants.)
    • Non-Point is more common.
  13. Five parts of the nitrogen cycle
    • Nitrogen Fixation
    • Nitrification
    • Ammonification
    • Denitrification
    • Assimilation
  14. Percentages or organic matter in the ecosystem.
    • 25% of the biomass in this ecosystem is all below ground.
    • Most is usually found in the soil.
    • When the soil gets removed, you lose a lot of the organic matter.
    • Reducing the nutrient content is also a bad thing.
    • The below ground biomass doesn't include burrowing animals, mostly means microorganisms and roots.
  15. Most Important Nutrients Used by Plants
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfur
    • Carbon
  16. Lichen
    • Soil is made during the process of the weathering of rock.
    • When glaciers recede, they only leave bedrock.
    • The only thing that can colonize this is lichen.
    • Lichen produce carbonic acid which eats the rock away and forms really primitive soil.
    • Only Nitrogen-fixing plants can live in young soil.
  17. Loam
    Mixture of Clay (10-30%), Silt (30-50%) and Sand (25-50%)
  18. 6 Soil Layers
    • O-Horizon
    • A-Horizon
    • E-Horizon
    • B-Horizon
    • C-Horizon
    • Solid Parent Material
  19. O – Horizon
    • Made up of humus (Decomposing matter).
    • Is where most organisms that live in soil are found. These organisms break down the humus.
    • Fairly rich with nutrients.
    • Richest mixture of nutrients are found on the bottom of this horizon.
    • Water tends to pull metals out of this horizon into deeper horizons (known as leaching)
  20. A-Horizon
    • Accumulated organic matter, more leached material at the bottom.
    • Plants sink their roots usually only through the O and A horizon.
  21. E-Horizon
    • If top soils are removed, difficult to grow things here.
    • Some plants can work with it, lot of them cant.
    • Lot of metals present in this horizon.
    • Much more resistant to leaching, but full of leached material.
  22. B-Horizon
    Lots of minerals accumulate here.
  23. Soil types
    • Mollisols: Fertile, dark, soils of temperate grasslands (The richest soil types in the world, They have a deep A Horizon)
    • Oxisols: Soils of tropical and subtropical rain forests (Humus broken down rapidly in O horizon, A horizon is thin)
    • Alfisols: Found in forests of the temperate zones (Moderately well developed O, A, E, and B horizons)
    • Aridisols: Soils of drylands and deserts of the world (Sandy with poor water retention, Known as salic soils)
    • Spodosols: Soils of northern coniferous forests (Acidic O horizon, Leaching is common)
  24. Types of Soil Damage
    • Erosion
    • Mineral Depletion
    • Salinization
    • Desertification
  25. What is biodiversity?
    • Number of Species (species richness)
    • Genetic diversity within a species (# of individuals, # of populations)
    • Ecological diversity (diversity of habitat)
  26. Valuation
    • Ecosystem Services (Pollination, pest control, flood services)
    • Genetics (genetic pool of resources: crops, gmo, source of new crops)
    • Research Potential (research of all kinds needs genetic stock)
    • Teaching potential (natural teaching lab)
    • Utilitarian (Products from the wild)
    • Spiritual/Religious ("piece of mind", recreation)
  27. Background Extinction
    • "Normal" rates derived from fossil record
    • Called "background extinction rate"
  28. Current Rates of Background Extinction
    • 10s to 10s of thousands of times background rates
    • Compared with any of the rates of the five mass extinctions
    • As a result, study of mass extinctions is important
  29. What causes extinctions?
    • Habitat alteration
    • Invasive species
    • Overexploitation
    • Pollution
  30. Causes of Extinctions: Habitat Alteration
    • Habitat loss
    • Habitat conversion
    • Habitat fragmentation
    • Habitat degradation
    • Damns
  31. How to decide what to conserve
    • Funding
    • Endangered habitats
    • Biodiversity hotspots
  32. Frog Declines
    • ~2000/5700 in decline
    • Amphibians as indicators
  33. Reasons for Frog Declines
    • Introduced predaceous fish
    • Other introduced species
    • Disease
    • Climate change
    • Deformities
  34. Peculiarities of honeybees
    • The proboscis reflex
    • Colonies
    • Lifespan
  35. Threats to honeybees
    • Varroa destructor (mites)
    • Nosema ceranae (parasite)
    • Colony collapse disorder
  36. Other pollinators
    • Alfalfa leaf-cutting bee
    • Blue Orchard bee
    • Hornfaced bee
    • Syrphid flies
    • Bluebottle flies
    • Houseflies
  37. Decline in Fish Size
    • Oceans warm and fish move more
    • Increases oxygen demand
    • Fish gill size selected for via natural selection
    • Result: Decline in size and move to cooler waters.

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