Conservation Exam 3
Card Set Information
Conservation Exam 3
Conservation Exam 3
~30% of world’s fresh water used by people
~70% for irrigation
~20% in industry
Deficit is not noticeable (made up by aquifer overpumping)
Problems most serious in these countries and/or areas
: China, The Indian subcontinent, The Middle East, North Africa, North America
In 18 countries, water supplies are insufficient
By 2050, water supply insufficient in ~39 countries
~1.7 billion people will have too little water to fulfill basic needs
Area that is super saturated
with water, in which water can be drawn out of it.
Rate at which aquifers are replenished.
Frequently exceeded by our water use. Rates vary quite a bit, as do the amount that water is being removed.
We draw about 2/3 of the recharge rate out of local aquifers.
Were being recharged in the past, however the weather situation has changed.
Black Hills Aquafers
Reducing flooding and damage from flooding
Don’t remove or “reclaim” wetlands
Don’t remove upland vegetation
Don’t remove streamside vegetation
Don’t channelize streams
Don’t build in floodplains
Occurs where you irrigate arid areas.
Brings salt out of the gound, turning it into a salt pan.
Vegetation doesn't recover in this area.
Supplies water to about 20% of the area.
Recharge rate extremely low.
Most of the recharge has come from ice melt from the last iceage.
Conversion of land to corn should increase water use.
Glacial lakes: “Prairie Potholes”
This region is the biggest region for the production of waterfowl for the country.
Has suffered a reduction of about 50% of ponds and 50% of water fowl populations.
The ponds are disappearing because of drought.
Point vs Non-Point Pollution
EPA Regulations Point-Source Pollution (Can be followed back to a source.)
Most of the pollution in the US and worldwide is from non-point sources (Running across the land, carrying pollutants.)
Non-Point is more common.
Five parts of the nitrogen cycle
Percentages or organic matter in the ecosystem.
25% of the biomass in this ecosystem is all below ground.
Most is usually found in the soil.
When the soil gets removed, you lose a lot of the organic matter.
Reducing the nutrient content is also a bad thing.
The below ground biomass doesn't include burrowing animals, mostly means microorganisms and roots.
Most Important Nutrients Used by Plants
Soil is made during the process of the weathering of rock.
When glaciers recede, they only leave bedrock.
The only thing that can colonize this is lichen.
Lichen produce carbonic acid which eats the rock away and forms really primitive soil.
Only Nitrogen-fixing plants can live in young soil.
Mixture of Clay (10-30%), Silt (30-50%) and Sand (25-50%)
6 Soil Layers
Solid Parent Material
O – Horizon
Made up of humus (Decomposing matter).
Is where most organisms that live in soil are found. These organisms break down the humus.
Fairly rich with nutrients.
Richest mixture of nutrients are found on the bottom of this horizon.
Water tends to pull metals out of this horizon into deeper horizons (known as leaching)
Accumulated organic matter, more leached material at the bottom.
Plants sink their roots usually only through the O and A horizon.
If top soils are removed, difficult to grow things here.
Some plants can work with it, lot of them cant.
Lot of metals present in this horizon.
Much more resistant to leaching, but full of leached material.
Lots of minerals accumulate here.
: Fertile, dark, soils of temperate grasslands (The richest soil types in the world, They have a deep A Horizon)
: Soils of tropical and subtropical rain forests (Humus broken down rapidly in O horizon, A horizon is thin)
: Found in forests of the temperate zones (Moderately well developed O, A, E, and B horizons)
: Soils of drylands and deserts of the world (Sandy with poor water retention, Known as salic soils)
: Soils of northern coniferous forests (Acidic O horizon, Leaching is common)
Types of Soil Damage
What is biodiversity?
Number of Species (species richness)
Genetic diversity within a species (# of individuals, # of populations)
Ecological diversity (diversity of habitat)
Ecosystem Services (Pollination, pest control, flood services)
Genetics (genetic pool of resources
: crops, gmo, source of new crops)
Research Potential (research of all kinds needs genetic stock)
Teaching potential (natural teaching lab)
Utilitarian (Products from the wild)
Spiritual/Religious ("piece of mind", recreation)
"Normal" rates derived from fossil record
Called "background extinction rate"
Current Rates of Background Extinction
10s to 10s of thousands of times background rates
Compared with any of the rates of the five mass extinctions
As a result, study of mass extinctions is important
What causes extinctions?
Causes of Extinctions: Habitat Alteration
How to decide what to conserve
~2000/5700 in decline
Amphibians as indicators
Reasons for Frog Declines
Introduced predaceous fish
Other introduced species
Peculiarities of honeybees
The proboscis reflex
Threats to honeybees
Colony collapse disorder
Alfalfa leaf-cutting bee
Blue Orchard bee
Decline in Fish Size
Oceans warm and fish move more
Increases oxygen demand
Fish gill size selected for via natural selection
: Decline in size and move to cooler waters.