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Types of organisms:
5. Parasites (actually called microbes)
Areas of study:
1. Food production
2. Bio technology
3. Genetic Engineering
origination and development of a disease
Distinguish between food, biotech, genetic engineering;
Food-study microbes in production of cheese, alcohol, and bread.
Biotech-study microbes in beneficial processes such as degredation of toxic materials and production of antibiotics, vitamins, food supplements.
Genetic Engineering-study microbes to produce insulin or replace defective genes.
Difference between parasite and host:
Parasite - lives in or on another host organism and causes damage
Host- where parasite lives
Microorganisms are found:
Everywhere on earth except where we made it sterile
Contributions by scientists:
Antonie VanLeeuwenhock - 1670 - Invented the microscope.
first to observe animalcules (microbes)
Edward Jenner - 1790 -
Made 1st vaccine which eradicated small pox virus
Vaccines could protect people from viral diseases
InazSemmelweis - 1850 -
Value of handwashing to prevent spread of diseases
Louis Pasteur -1850-1880 -
Father of micro biology
Developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies
Convinced scientific community that theory of spontaneous generation was false-illness caused by microbes.
Robert Koch - 1870 - Developed postulates for studying microbes:
1-causative agent must be demonstrated in all animals w/diseases but not in other animals
2 -a pure cx of agent is needed
3 -pure cx organisms produce same result when injected into healthy
4 -same microbe that made animal sick could be reisolated from the second group.
Basis for belief in spontaneous generation
Because sterilized cx left out overnight were found to be contaminated the following morning....Pasteur proved that this contamination came from the air.Hist