Nutrition exam II

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Nutrition exam II
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2011-04-02 13:40:04
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  1. Naturally occuring chemicals
    Minerals
  2. are minerals organic or inorganic
    inorganic
  3. what percent of total body weight do minerals account for
    4%
  4. essential nutrients that comprize more than 5g (1tsp)
    major minerals
  5. essential nutrients that are less than 5g in the body
    trace minerals
  6. Major/macronutrients (7)
    • Ca
    • P
    • K
    • S
    • Na
    • Cl
    • Mg
  7. Minor/trace/micronutrients (15)
    • Iron
    • zinc
    • copper
    • iodine
    • manganese
    • molybdemun
    • fluorine
    • selenium
    • chromium
    • cobalt
    • silicon
    • tin
    • nickel
    • vanadium
    • arsenic
  8. Water content of cells is regulated by
    major minerals that form salts
  9. most abundant mineral in the body
    calcium
  10. Which two major minerals are essential for bone formation
    calcium and phosphorus
  11. Role of calcium in tooth formation
    • 99% stored in teeth and bones
    • combines with phoshpate salts to form hydroxyapatite to make teeth strong
  12. what is fomed on collagen matrix to create the dentin that gives teeth strength
    hydroxyapatite
  13. What cancer is caused by low intakes of calcium
    colon and rectal cancer
  14. what serves as a calcium reservoir
    bones
  15. blood calcium is regulated by
    hormones: parathyroid, vitamin D, calcitonin
  16. Insufficient bone calcium increases the risk of
    osteoporosis
  17. 3 causes of osteoporosis
    • insuficient physical activity
    • insuffcient intake of calcium
    • genetics
  18. dowager's hump is characteristic of
    osteoporosis
  19. how are bones of smokers
    less dense
  20. can quitting smoking reverse the damaging effects on the bones
    yes
  21. target tissues for regulating the blood calcium
    • small intestines
    • kindenys
    • bone
  22. Adequate Intake of Calcium
    • adults 19-50 years: 1000 mg/day
    • adults 51 and older: 1200 mg/day
    • upper level for adults: 2500 mg/day
    • intakes for children and adolescents are higher
  23. sources of calcium
    • milk, cheese, milk products
    • green vegetables (brocoli, chard, kale, collards)
    • legumes
    • bread
    • fish with bones
  24. 4 major functions of calcium
    • bone and tooth formation
    • blood clotting
    • nerve transmission
    • muscle contraction
  25. hypocalcemia (8
    • incomplete calcification of teeth
    • increased suseptibility to caries and periodontal disease
    • risk of hemorrhage
    • tetany (crams and remors of face, hands, feet, heart)
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • rickets
    • osteoporosis
    • tooth mobility/loss
  26. hypercalciemia
    • excess not observed in healty people
    • cause related to excess vit D or disease state such as parathyroid or kidney disease
  27. second most abundant mineral in the body
    phosphorus
  28. what % of phosphorus are teeth and bones
    85%
  29. Phosphorus combines with what to form crystals of bone and teeth
    calcium
  30. Phosphorus forms part of
    • ATP
    • ADP
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • phosphoproteins
    • phospholipids
  31. Major fxns of phosphorus (6)
    • bone and tooth formation
    • acid-base balance (buffering)
    • release of energy (ATP/ADP)
    • component in ezymes and colas
    • necessary for muscle contraction
    • necessary for nerve activity
  32. Deficiency of phosphorus
    Hypophosphatemia
  33. hypophosphatemia results from (5)
    • prolonged intake of:
    • aluminum hydroxide antacids,
    • diuretics,
    • alcohol
    • prolonged:
    • diarrhea
    • digestive problems
  34. Problems with phosphorous deficiencies (4)
    • hypocalcification
    • decreased dentin formation
    • suseptibility of teeth to caries from phosphorous deficiency during tooth development
    • increased suseptibility to periodontal disease
  35. replacing milk with what leads to poor calcium-phosphorous ratio
    soda
  36. third most prevalent mineral in teeth, especially in dentin
    magnesium
  37. Sources of phosphorous
    • milk, cheese
    • meat, poultry (animal protein is the best source)
    • grains, cereal
    • beans, peas
    • eggs
    • soda
  38. how much magnesium is in the body of a 135 pound person
    1 ounce
  39. Where is most magnesium found
    • bones
    • the rest is in the muscles, heart, liver, and other soft tissues
  40. Role of Magnesium (8)
    • critical to functioning of over 300 enzymes
    • helps release and use of energy from energy-yeilding nutrients
    • directly affects the metabolism of potassium, calcium, vitamin D
    • maintains calcium homeostasis
    • prevents skeletal abnormalities
    • part of protein-making
    • works with calcium for the proper functioning of muscles (relaxes muscles after contraction)
    • Promotes resistance to tooth decay by holding calcium in tooth enamel
  41. magnesium directly affects the metabolism of (3)
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • magnesium
  42. Difficiency of magnesium results from
    • inadequate intake
    • diahrrea
    • vomiting
    • diuretics
    • alcoholism/cirrhosis
    • protein malnutrition
  43. is deficiency of magnesium common?
    yes
  44. symptomes of too little magnesium
    • neuromuscular hyperexcitability
    • latent tetany
    • spontaneous hand or foot spasms
    • generalized seizures
    • cardiac arrhythmias
  45. symptoms of magnesium toxicity (too much)
    • devere diarrhea
    • acid-base imbalance
    • dehydration
  46. dental implications of magnesium deficiency
    • changes in ameloblasts and odontoblasts
    • hypoplasia of enamel and dentin
    • reduced formation of alveolar bone
    • widening of periodontal ligament space
    • gingival hyperplasia
  47. Food sources of magnesium
    • whole grains
    • green leafy vegetables
    • cocoa
    • nuts
    • soybeans
  48. What is the most common human medical problem besides the human cold
    caries
  49. what kind of deposites are placed on the teeth due to fluoride
    crystalline deposites
  50. fluoride replaces what portion of hydroxyapatite
    hydroxy
  51. fluoride's role in preventing caries in developing teeth
    forms decay-resistant crystals (fluorapatite)
  52. fluoride's role in preventing caries in erupted teeth (4)
    • promotes remineralization of early lesions in enamel
    • suppresses bacterial metabolism and reduces the amount of acid they produce
    • changes in tooth morphology increases resistance of tooth to adherence of dental plaque
    • effects are cumulative
  53. Where is fluoride deposited
    • inner part of enamel
    • dentin
  54. When is fluoride deposited
    during amelogenesis/dentogenesis stage
  55. When are the greatest protective benefits of fluoride?
    6-8years old
  56. when is fluoride used for adults (5)
    • hypersensitivity
    • exposed root surfaces
    • xerostomia
    • use of smokeless tobacco
    • radiation therapy
  57. Sources of fluoride
    • water, tea
    • seafood
    • toothpaste
    • food made with water
    • mouthwash
    • supplements
  58. optimal concentration of fluoride in water
    .7-1.2 ppm
  59. Toxicity of fluoride causes
    white spots to form on tooth enamel
  60. Ul for people over 8 years old
    10 mg/day
  61. fluoride is no longer involved systemically in tooth formation when?
    after tooth eruption
  62. fluoride in breast milk
    very low
  63. too little fluoride
    increased risk of caries
  64. too much fluoride
    • fluorosis (enamel hypoplasia)
    • tooth mottling
  65. recommended fluoride for men and women
    • men 4mg
    • women 3mg
  66. how many minerals does the body contain
    more than 40
  67. how many minerals are essential out of the ones found in the body
    15
  68. gatekeepers for fluid, electrolyte and acidbase balance
    kidneys
  69. Aldosterone from adrenal glands promotes loss of what?
    reduces loss of what
    • promotes loss of K
    • reduces loss of Na
  70. how many grams of Na can maintain Na balance?
    .5grams
  71. sodium free
    less than 5mg
  72. low sodium
    less than 140 mg
  73. reduced sodium
    25% less than origional
  74. leading source of salt
    processed foods
  75. what is msg
    monosodium glutamate
  76. sources of sodium
    • Table salt
    • –Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
    • –Baking powder, baking soda
    • –Preservatives usually contain some
    • sodium
    • –salad dressings, pickles, canned
    • soups, corned beef, luncheon meats,
    • snack foods, chips
  77. too little sodium
    hyponatrimia
  78. effects of too much sodium (hypernatrimia)
    • high blood pressure
    • sticky tongue/xerostomia
    • loss of calcium excreted in urine
    • edema or ascites
    • CHF
    • renal failure
    • adrenal tumors
    • liver disease
  79. Na is absorbed through...
    excreted through...
    • small intestines
    • kidneys
  80. Adequate Intake of Na
    1,5000 mg
  81. 3 major electrolytes
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • chloride
  82. Role of Na
    • –Fluid balance
    • –Electrolyte balance
    • –Maintenance of ICF and ECF balance
    • –Acid-base balance
    • –Muscle contraction
    • –Nerve transmission
    • –Cell permeability
  83. What happens to excess sodium
    cant be excreted in urine..causes problems in the body
  84. which electrolyte is inside cells
    k
  85. which electrolyte is outside cells
    Na
  86. Role of K
    • –Maintenance of fluid balance and pH
    • Energy metabolism
    • –Maintenance of electrolyte balance
    • –Maintenance of cell integrity
    • –Muscle contractions and heartbeat
    • –Nerve impulses
  87. Hypokalemia
    • (potassium deficiency)
    • –sudden death due to heart failure
    • –can occur during fasting or severe diarrhea
    • –in children with kwashiorkor
    • –people with eating disorders, alcoholism, excessive vomiting, ketoacidosis
  88. Dehydration leads to a loss of
    potassium from where?
    inside cells
  89. Loss of potassium inside the cells causes the brain for forget in needs what?
    water
  90. Hyperkalemia
    • – Sudden increase in dietary intake in those unable to excrete excesses
    • – Improper use of salt substitutes or potassium tablets
    • – Renal failure
    • – Dehydration,
    • adrenal insufficiency
    • –Major infection
    • – Increased protein catabolism
  91. Symptoms of hyperkalemia include
    • – Numbness of the face, tongue, and extremities
    • – Muscle weakness
    • – Cardiac arrhythmia
    • – Cardiac failure
  92. what % of K does the US diet usually provide
    50%
  93. Sources of potassium
    • fresh, whole foods,
    • fruits and veggies
    • meat, poultry, fish,
    • milk
  94. major negative ion in the body
    Chloride
  95. role of Cl
    • –Accompanies Na in fluids outside cells
    • –Acid-base balance
    • –Electrolyte balance
    • –Component of hydrochloric acid (gastric juice)
    • –Lung function in O2 and CO2 exchange
  96. Food sources of Cl
    • • Table salt (sodium chloride)
    • • Salt substitute (potassium chloride)
    • • Eggs
    • • Fish
    • • Meat
  97. Found in every cell of the body
    • Sodium
    • iron
    • selenium
  98. Iron is a component of
    • Hemoglobin
    • Myoglobin
  99. oxygen-carrying protein of RBCs
    hemoglobin
  100. oxygen-holding protein of muscles
    myoglobin
  101. Iron is needed to make
    • • New cells
    • • Amino acids
    • • Hormones
    • • Neurotransmitters
  102. Iron helps many enzymes use
    oxygen
  103. Function of Iron as a component of hemoglobin
    • – Carries oxygen from the lungs to all cells
    • – Returns carbon dioxide to the lungs
  104. Funtion of Iron as a cofactor for enzymes
    • Release of energy from macronutrients
    • Conversion of beta-carotene to preformed
    • vitamin A
    • Formation of collagen
  105. Oral signs of iron deficiency (7)
    • Pallor of lips and oral mucosa
    • Angular cheilitis
    • Atrophy of filiform papillae
    • Glossitis; sore burning tongue
    • Oral candidiasis
    • Reduced resistance to infection
    • Extrinsic tooth staining from supplements
  106. Loss of iron from bleeding
    • •Menstrual bleeding
    • • Injury
    • • Surgery
  107. Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide
    iron- 1.2 billion people
  108. are iron supplements necessary during pregnancy?
    yes
  109. free ion is a powerful
    oxidant (bad for cells)
  110. severe iron deficiency leads to
    Iron deficiency Anemia
  111. How iron deficiency anemia works
    • cells contain too little hemoglobin
    • not enough oxygen delivered
    • the energy metabolism of cells is limited
    • leads to feeling tired, cold, apathetic, pallor, headache, dizziness, SOB, increased heart rate
  112. Hemosiderosis
    excessive iron stores
  113. hemochromatosis
    • iron overload
    • genetic overabsorption of iron
    • may cause skin pigmentation, organ damage, cirrhosis of the liver
  114. Iron overload is most severe with who?
    Alcohol abusers
  115. Iron occurs in two forms
    • heme: meat, fish, poultry
    • nonheme: plants, eggs, milk, nuts, legumes, and some meats
  116. Which minerals and other substances interfere with iron absorption
    • calcium
    • manganese
    • phosphorous
    • tannius (found in tea and coffee)
    • milk
  117. what conditions enhance iron absorption
    acidic
  118. What can triple absorption of
    nonheme iron from foods eaten in the
    same meal
    Vitamin C
  119. are iron requirements higher for men or women
    women due to monthly blood loss
  120. Role of zinc
    • Works with proteins in every body organ Helps nearly 200 enzymes to make parts of the cell’s genetic material
    • Makes heme in hemoglobin
    • Assists the pancreas with its digestive
    • functions and insulin activity
    • Helps metabolize CHO, protein and fat
    • Liberated vitamin A from storage in the liver
    • Fetal development
    • Growth and development in children
    • Protective role in oxidative damage?
    • Regulation of gene expression in protein synthesis
    • Affects behavior and learning
    • Assists in immune function
    • Wound healing
    • Night vision
    • Sexual maturation
    • Taste, smell, appetite
  121. mild deficiency of zinc can lead to
    • –Impaired immunity
    • –Abnormal taste
    • –Abnormal vision in the dark
  122. zinc deficiency
    • Adverse affects on growth
    • Profoundly alters digestive function
    • diarrhea which worsens malnutrition
    • impairs the immune response
    • disturbs thyroid function
    • slows body’s energy metabolism
    • reduced appetite
    • slows wound healing
  123. oral complications of a Zinc deficiency
    • Impaired keratinization of epithelial cells Increased susceptibility to perio disease
    • Cleft lip and palate
    • Parotid gland growth impaired
    • Abnormal mineral metabolism
    • Impaired wound healing
    • Tongue:
    • Thickening of epithelium of tongue
    • Flattened filiform papillae
    • Taste changes:
    • Hypogeusia (diminished taste sensitivity)
    • Hyposmia (diminished odor sensitivity)
    • Altered tastes of saltiness, sweetness, or bitterness
    • Lessened appetite
    • Atrophic oral mucosa
    • Xerostomia
  124. Major food sources of zinc
    • •Meats
    • • Shellfish
    • • Dark meat poultry
    • • eggs
  125. how well are plant sources of zinc absorbed? and what are they?
    • not well
    • Some legumes
    • Whole grains
    • Dark green and deep yellow veggies
  126. Role of Iodine
    • Component of thyroxine
    • • Regulates basal metabolic rate and processing of macronutrients
    • • Necessary for normal physical and mental development
  127. Iron deficiency causes
    • –Enlarged thyroid (goiter)
    • –Sluggishness
    • –Weight gain
  128. Severe Iron deficiency during pregnacy causes
    • Cretinism
    • • Extreme irreversible mental and physical retardation
    • • Can be averted if deficiency is detected and treated within the first six
    • months of pregnancy
    • – Dental implications
    • • Delayed eruption of teeth
    • • Enlarged tongue
    • • Altered craniofacial growth/development
    • •Malocclusion
  129. One of the most treatable causes of mental retardation
    iron deficiency
  130. Sources of iodine
    • Seafood
    • Iodized salt (half tsp provides totally need for a day)
    • milk
    • molassas
    • yogurt
  131. Role of Selenium
    • Antioxidant
    • • Prevent formation of free radicals and prevent oxidative harm to cells / tissues
    • Important for proper functioning of the pancreas and the immune system
  132. sources of selenium
    • •Meats
    • •Shellfish
    • •Liver
    • •Vegetables and grains grown in selenium-rich soils
  133. Too little selenium
    • Muscle weakness,
    • joint discomfort,
    • disorders of the heart muscle or pancreas
  134. people at risk for selenium deficiency
    • – Vegans
    • – People with malabsorption
    • – areas of selenium-deficient soil
  135. Too much selenium
    • • Hair loss
    • • Fingernail discoloration, tenderness and loss
    • • Breath odor
    • • Vomiting
    • • Increased fatigue
  136. oral implications of too much selenium
    • incidence of decayed, missing, and
    • filled teeth is higher in children living in
    • areas where soil is high in selenium
  137. Role of Chromium
    • Works closely with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose
    • Essential for enzymes that metabolize fat
  138. food sources for chromium
    • –Meats
    • –Whole grain cereals
    • –Mushrooms
    • –Nuts
    • –Beer/wine
  139. Deficiency of Chromium
    • –Impaired insulin action
    • •Resulting in a diabetes-like
    • condition
    • •Seen with heavy refined foods
    • consumption
  140. Role of Copper
    • Formation of hemoglobin and collagen
    • Many enzymes depend on copper for its oxygen-handling ability
    • Plays a role in the body’s handling of iron
    • Assists in reactions leading to the release of energy
    • Protects health of nerve tissue
    • Prevents hair from turning gray prematurely
  141. Effects of too little copper
    • • Tissue fragility
    • • Bone demineralization
    • • Central nervous system disorders
    • • Diminished skin pigmentation
  142. sources of copper
    • –Organ meats
    • –Seafood
    • –Nuts
    • –Seeds
    • –Mushrooms
    • –Chocolate
    • –Water may supply copper
  143. Role of molybdenum
    • Coenzyme
    • Part of enzymes that metabolize proteins
    • May inhibit caries formation
    • Necessary for iron metabolism
  144. Sources of Molybdenum
    • Beans,
    • meats, fish, poultry
    • Grains, legumes, nuts
    • Milk, cheese, yogurt
  145. Role of Manganese
    • Works with dozens of different enzymes
    • that facilitate body processes
    • Optimal bone matrix development
    • Prevention of osteoporosis
    • CHO/energy metabolism
    • Insulin production
    • Antioxidant protection
    • Protein synthesis
    • Fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis
  146. Food sources of manganese
    • Soil concentration influences amount in plant foods
    • Whole grains
    • Legumes
    • Vegetables
    • Fruits
  147. Ultratrace Minerals
    • Boron
    • Aluminum
    • Nickel
    • silicon
  148. Boron
    • Influences the activity of many enzymes
    • Necessary for formation of healthy bones
  149. Boron food sources
    • Plant foods
    • Fruits, nuts, veggies, legumes, wine
  150. Role of Nickel
    Important for the health of many body tissues
  151. deficiency of nickel
    harm to liver and other body organs
  152. Role of silicon
    • Contributes to structure and resilience of
    • collagen, elastin, polysaccharides
    • Present in tooth enamel
  153. sources of silicon
    • whole grains
    • root veggies
  154. role of Aluminum
    cariostatic agent with fluoride

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