A&P I Joints

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A&P I Joints
2011-04-02 14:27:36

Chapter 8: Joints
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  1. Define: Joint/ Articulations
    Sites where two or more bones meet.
  2. Fibrous Joint
    Bones are joined by fibrous tissue.
  3. Cartilaginous Joint
    Articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage.
  4. Synovial Joint
    Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid (Synovium)
  5. Define: Synarthroses
    Immovable Joints
  6. Define: Amphiarthroses
    Slightly Movable Joints
  7. Define: Diarthroses
    Freely Movable Joints
  8. Types of Fibrous Joints (3)
    • Suture
    • Syndesmoses
    • Gomphoses
  9. Types of Cartilaginous Joints (2)
    • Synchondroses
    • Symphyses
  10. Define: Sutures
    Found connecting bones of the Skull (immovable).
  11. Define: Syndesmoses
    Longer fibers than sutures, the length determines the amount of movement (slightly movable).
  12. Define: Gomphoses
    Short ligaments that connect teeth to their sockets.
  13. Define: Synchondroses
    • Immovable joints that are a bar or a plate of cartilage that join two bones together
    • e.g. Epiphyseal plate
  14. Define: Symphyses

    • Fibrocartilage sandwhiched between articular cartilage and held together by ligament. Slightly movable.
    • e.g. Found in the vertebrae
  15. Synovial Joint (Know the figure)
  16. Movement: Opposition
    Is the action that occurs when the thumb moves to touch the tips of the other digits.
  17. Movement: Gliding
    Flat bone surfaces slide across each others surface both back and forth as well as side to side (Carpals of the wrist and Tarsals of the foot).
  18. Movement: Flexion, Extension & Hyperextension
    • Flexion reduces the angle between bones.
    • Extension increases the angle between bones.
    • Hyperextension occurs when the extension goes beyond the normal upright.
  19. Movement: Dorsiflexion & Plantar flexion
    Flexion of the foot can point up towards the body (Dorsiflexion) or down away from the body (Plantar flexion).
  20. Movement: Abduction, Adduction & Circumduction
    • Abduction: Movement of the limb away from the midline.
    • Adduction: Movement of the limb towards the midline.
    • Circumduction: Moving the distal portion of a limb in a circular direction (whipping your hair).
  21. Movement: Rotation
    The turning of the bone around its long axis.
  22. Movement: Protraction & Retraction
    Non-angular movements of the anteriorly and posteriorly (Jaw).
  23. Movement: Elevation & Depression
    • Elevation (Up) & Depression (Down)
    • Movement of the body part superiorly and inferiorly
    • (Srugging of shoulders & Chewing w/ Jaw)
  24. Movement: Inversion & Eversion
    • Inversion- the sole of the foot faces medially (inward)
    • Eversion- the sole of the foot faces laterally (outward)
  25. Movement: Supination & Pronation
    • Refer to the movement of the Radius around the Ulna (wrist)
    • Supination- turning backward
    • Pronation- turning forward
  26. Joint Type: Gliding/ Planar Joint
    Found in the Carpal bones of the wrist and the Tarsal bones of the ankle.
  27. Joint Type: Hinge Joint
    Found in the Knee and Elbow
  28. Joint Type: Condyloid Joint
    Found in the Metacarpals/ Metatarsals and the phalanges
  29. Joint Type: Saddle Joint
    Found in the Thumb (Metacarpal and Trapezium)
  30. Joint Type: Pivot Joint
    Found in the Atlas and Axis or the Radius and Ulna
  31. Joint Type: Ball and Socket Joints
    Found in the Shoulder and Hip
  32. Define: Sprain
    The liagments of a joint are streched or torn
  33. Define: Strain
    The tendons or muscles of a joint are stretched or torn
  34. Define: Dislocations
    When bones are forced out of alignment
  35. Define: Subluxation
    A partial dislocation of a joint
  36. Define: Bursitis and Tendonitis
    Inflammation of a bursa or the tendon sheath respectively
  37. Define: Arthritis
    Inflammatory or degenerative disease which damages the joints
  38. Define: Osteoarthritis
    Most commonly and often seen in the elderly is caused from a wear and tear of the articular cartilage in the joints which lack their ability to be replaced
  39. Define: Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Usually arises between the ages of 40-50 it is caused by an autoimmune disease which attacks the body's tissue
  40. Define: Gouty Arthritis
    Is when excessive Uric Acid is deposited in the joints forming crystals and an inflammatory response initially starts in the big toe