A&P I Joints
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Define: Joint/ Articulations
Sites where two or more bones meet.
Bones are joined by fibrous tissue.
Articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage.
Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid (Synovium)
Slightly Movable Joints
Freely Movable Joints
Types of Fibrous Joints (3)
Types of Cartilaginous Joints (2)
Found connecting bones of the Skull (immovable).
Longer fibers than sutures, the length determines the amount of movement (slightly movable).
Short ligaments that connect teeth to their sockets.
- Immovable joints that are a bar or a plate of cartilage that join two bones together
- e.g. Epiphyseal plate
- Fibrocartilage sandwhiched between articular cartilage and held together by ligament. Slightly movable.
- e.g. Found in the vertebrae
Synovial Joint (Know the figure)
Is the action that occurs when the thumb moves to touch the tips of the other digits.
Flat bone surfaces slide across each others surface both back and forth as well as side to side (Carpals of the wrist and Tarsals of the foot).
Movement: Flexion, Extension & Hyperextension
- Flexion reduces the angle between bones.
- Extension increases the angle between bones.
- Hyperextension occurs when the extension goes beyond the normal upright.
Movement: Dorsiflexion & Plantar flexion
Flexion of the foot can point up towards the body (Dorsiflexion) or down away from the body (Plantar flexion).
Movement: Abduction, Adduction & Circumduction
- Abduction: Movement of the limb away from the midline.
- Adduction: Movement of the limb towards the midline.
- Circumduction: Moving the distal portion of a limb in a circular direction (whipping your hair).
The turning of the bone around its long axis.
Movement: Protraction & Retraction
Non-angular movements of the anteriorly and posteriorly (Jaw).
Movement: Elevation & Depression
- Elevation (Up) & Depression (Down)
- Movement of the body part superiorly and inferiorly
- (Srugging of shoulders & Chewing w/ Jaw)
Movement: Inversion & Eversion
- Inversion- the sole of the foot faces medially (inward)
- Eversion- the sole of the foot faces laterally (outward)
Movement: Supination & Pronation
- Refer to the movement of the Radius around the Ulna (wrist)
- Supination- turning backward
- Pronation- turning forward
Joint Type: Gliding/ Planar Joint
Found in the Carpal bones of the wrist and the Tarsal bones of the ankle.
Joint Type: Hinge Joint
Found in the Knee and Elbow
Joint Type: Condyloid Joint
Found in the Metacarpals/ Metatarsals and the phalanges
Joint Type: Saddle Joint
Found in the Thumb (Metacarpal and Trapezium)
Joint Type: Pivot Joint
Found in the Atlas and Axis or the Radius and Ulna
Joint Type: Ball and Socket Joints
Found in the Shoulder and Hip
The liagments of a joint are streched or torn
The tendons or muscles of a joint are stretched or torn
When bones are forced out of alignment
A partial dislocation of a joint
Define: Bursitis and Tendonitis
Inflammation of a bursa or the tendon sheath respectively
Inflammatory or degenerative disease which damages the joints
Most commonly and often seen in the elderly is caused from a wear and tear of the articular cartilage in the joints which lack their ability to be replaced
Define: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Usually arises between the ages of 40-50 it is caused by an autoimmune disease which attacks the body's tissue
Define: Gouty Arthritis
Is when excessive Uric Acid is deposited in the joints forming crystals and an inflammatory response initially starts in the big toe
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