Principles Chapter 4

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Principles Chapter 4
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Principles Chapter 4
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  1. Define socialization and explain why this process is essential for the individual and society.
    • Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
    • Socialization is essential for the individual's survival and for human development. The many people who met the early material and social needs of each of us were central to our establishing our own identity. The kind of person we become depends greatly on what we learn during our formative years from our surrounding social groups and social environment.
    • Socialization is also essential for the survival and stability of society. Members of society must be socialized to support and maintain the existing social structure.
  2. Explain Freud's views on the conflict between individual desires and the demands of society.
    • The basic assumption in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach is that human behavior and personality originate from unconscious forces within individuals.
    • According to Freud, human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of the personality. Children first develop the id (drives and needs), then the ego (restrictions on the id), and then the superego (moral and ethical aspects of personality).
  3. Describe Ericson's stages of psychosocial development.
    • 1. Trust versus mistrust = If infants receive nurturing care from parents develop sense of trust.
    • 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt = If allowed to explore their environment children grow autonomous. If parents disapprove of or discourage them, children will begin to doubt their abilities.
    • 3. Initiative versus guilt = If parents encourage initiative in this stage children develop sense of initiative but if parents make children feel that their actions are bad or that they are a nuisance children may develop a strong sense of guilt.
    • 4. Industry versus inferiority = Adults who encourage children's efforts produce a feeling of industry in them, but can feel inferior when adults view children's efforts as silly or a nuisance.
    • 5. Identity versus role confusion = Role confusion results when individuals fail to acquire an accurate sense of personal identity.
    • 6. Intimacy versus isolation = If individuals establish successful relationships, intimacy ensues, if they fail to do so they may feel isolated.
    • 7. Generativity versus self-absorption = Generativity means looking beyond oneself and being concerned about the next generation and the future of the world in general. Self-absorbed people may be preoccupied with their own well-being and material gains or be overwhelmed by stagnation, boredom, and interpersonal impoverishment.
    • 8. Integrity versus despair = Integrity results when individuals have resolved previous psychosocial crises and are able to look back at their life as having been meaningful and personally fulfilling. Despair results when previous crises remain unresolved and individuals view their life as a series of disappointments, failures, and misfortunes.
  4. Outline the Piaget's stages of cognitive development.
    • Children go through four stages of cognitive (intellectual) development, going from understanding only through sensory contact to engaging in highly abstract thought.
    • 1. Sensorimotor stage - Children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate action.
    • 2. Preoperational stage - Children begin to use words as metal symbols and to form mental images.
    • 3. Concrete operational stage - Children think in terms of tangible objects and actual events.
    • 4. Formal operational stage - Adolescents have the potential to engage in highly abstract thought and understand places, things, and events they have never seen.
  5. What are the major agents of socialization and describe their effects on children's development.
    • The agents of socialization include family, schools, peer groups, and the media.
    • Our families, which transmit cultural and social values to us, are the most important agents of socialization in all societies, serving these functions: (1) procreating and socializing children, (2) providing emotional support, and (3) assigning social position.
    • Schools primarily teach knowledge and skills but also have a profound influence on the self-image, beliefs, and values of children.
    • Peer groups contribute to our sense of belonging and self-worth, and are a key source of information about acceptable behavior.
    • The media function as socializing agents by (1) informing us about world events, (2) introducing us to a wide variety of people, and (3) providing an opportunity to live vicariously through other people's experiences.
  6. Describe Mead's concept of the generalized other and explain socialization as an interactive process.
    • Generalized other refers to the child's awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child's subculture.
    • Cooley's idea of the looking-glass self makes us aware that our perception of how we think others see us is not always correct. Mead extended Cooley's ideas by emphasizing the cognitive skills acquired through role-taking. According to Mead, "Selves can only exist in definite relations to other selves. No hard-and-fast line can be drawn between our own selves and the selves of others."
  7. Describe the major strengths and weaknesses of Erikson's developmental theory.
  8. Compare and contrast the moral development theories of Kohlberg and Gilligan.
    • Kohlberg- People go through 3 stages of moral development from avoidance of unwanted consequences to viewing morality based on human rights.
    • Gilligan- Women go through stages of moral development from personal wants to the greatest good for themselves and others.
    • Gilligan argued that men are socialized to make moral decisions based on justice perspective whereas women are socialized to make decisions on a care and responsibility perspective.
  9. Explain what is meant by gender socialization and racial socialization.
    • Gender socialization is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female and male in a specific group or society. Influences our beliefs about acceptable behaviors for males and females.
    • Racial socialization- The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one's racial or ethnic status as it relates to: personal and group identity, intergroup and interindividual relationships, and position in the social hierarchy.
  10. Describe the process of resocialization and explain why it often takes place in a total institution.
    • Learning a new set of attitudes, values, and behaviors.
    • Resocialization is voluntary when we assume a new status of our own free will.
    • Involuntary resocialization occurs against a person's wishes and generally takes place within a total institution. (Military boot camps, jails, concentration camps, and some mental hospitals are total institutions.)
  11. Distinguish between sociological and sociobiological perspectives on the development of human behavior.
    • According to sociologists, an individual cannot form a sense of self or personal identity without intense social contact with others. The self represents the sum total of perceptions and feelings that an individual has obtained through interactions with others.
    • Sociobiological is the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior.
  12. Outline the stages of the life course and explain how each stage varies based on gender, race/ethnicity, class, and positive or negative treatment.
    • Each time we experience a change in status we learn a new set of rules, roles, and relationships.
    • Before we achieve a new status, we often participate in anticipatory socialization: the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
    • __________
  13. Outline the key components of Cooley and Mead's human development theories.
    • Cooley- We base our perception of who we are on how we think people see us and on whether we think this opinion is good or bad. He calls this: The looking glass self- the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from his/her perceptions of others. Our self is not who we actually are or what people actually think about us; rather it is based on our perceptions of what other people think about us. Stage 1: We imagine how we look to others. Stage 2: We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present. If we think the evaluation is favorable our self-concept is enhanced. If we think the evaluation is unfavorable our self-concpet is diminished.
    • Mead- Linked the idea of self-concept to role-taking. Role Taking: the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group�s point of view. The self is divided into "I" and "Me": "I": the subjective element of the self; it is the spontaneous and unique traits of each person. "Me": the objective element of self; it is composed of the demands of others and the individual's awareness of those demands. "I" develops first. "Me" is formed during three stages of self development. Significant Others: those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and are most important in the development of self. Three stages of Self-Development: 1. Preparatory Stage (up to age 3) Children prepare for role-taking by imitating the people around them. 2. Play Stage (3 - 5) Children begin to see themselves in relation to others; learn to use language and other symbols; pretend to take the roles of specific people. 3. Game Stage (early school years) Children understand their social position and the positions of those around them. Children become concerned about the demands and expectations of others.(This is called: generalized other)
  14. Explain why cases of isolated children are important to understanding the socialization process.
    A look at the lives of two children who suffered such emotional abuse provides important insights into the importance of a positive socialization process and the negative effects of social isolation.
  15. Explain Cooley and Mead�s contribution to our understanding of the socialization process.
  16. Socialization
    The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, metal, and social skills needed for survival in society.
  17. Sociobiology
    The systematic study of how biology affects social behavior.
  18. Id
    Sigmund Freud's term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual�s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification.
  19. Ego
    According to Sigmund Freud, the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id.
  20. Superego
    Sigmund Freud's term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.
  21. Self-concept
    The totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves.
  22. Looking-glass Self
    Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
  23. Role-taking
    The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view.
  24. Significant Others
    Those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self.
  25. Generalized Other
    George Herbert Mead's term for the child�s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child's subculture.
  26. Agents of Socialization
    The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
  27. Peer Group
    A group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age.
  28. Gender Socialization
    The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
  29. Racial Socialization
    The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one�s racial or ethnic status.
  30. Anticipatory Socialization
    The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
  31. Social Devaluation
    A situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other persons or groups.
  32. Resocialization
    The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one�s background and previous experience.
  33. Total Institution
    Erving Goffman's term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution.

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