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2011-04-01 19:02:39
Basic concepts

CH 2 Basic Concepts of Microbiology
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  1. Polar:
    positive charge at one end and neg charge at other end

    ie, water
  2. Non Polar
    no charge differential

    ie, oil
  3. pH: measurement of acid or alkaline properties
    • Basic _> 8
    • Nuetral = 7
    • Acid _< 6

  4. General function of enzyme:
    - A protein that speeds up a chem reaction in a living organism

    - Cause the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules

    - Derive energy from chemicals for use by growing cells
  5. enzymes:
    - workers of a cell

    - polymers of amino acids
  6. An organism that contains 1 million base pairs of DNA is more likely to have:
    • 1,000 genes (over 10,000 genes)
    • 1,000 genes if average length
  7. Three bases of RNA are required to code for one amino acid
  8. Differences between DNA and RNA
    • DNA: Double stranded
    • Composed of sugar deoxyribose
    • and thymidine

    • RNA: Single stranded
    • Ribose
    • Uridine
  9. If bacterial cells has 35% guanine, how much cytosine/adenine?
    • Nucleic Acid - Guanine = cytosine
    • Bact Cell - Adenine = thymidine

    35%g, 35%c, 15%c, 15%a
  10. Lipids:
    Profide non-polar boundry to keep certain cellular contents in and unwanted materials out.
  11. Macromolecules:
    may be found in numbers of 1-100 thousand copies per cell
  12. Proteins: Groups of amino acids
    • Enzymes-worker of cell
    • -a protein that speeds up a chem reaction in a living organism
  13. Polysaccharides:
    Any one of a class of carbohydrates made of long chains of simple carbohydrates (called monosaccharides).
  14. Nucleic Acids:
    Sugar- phosphate repeating structure, usually millions of units long

    Any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric acid

    Nucleic acids in DNA and RNA control cellular function and heredity
  15. Gene:
    string of codons
  16. Codon:
    Sequence of 3 adjacent nucleotides consistituting the genetic code that determines the insertion of a specific amino acid in a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis or to signal the stop of protein synthesis
  17. DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • -double stranded
    • -chromosome (thousands of genes make up a single, double stranded DNA)
    • -the 2 strands are adenine (A) and thymidine (T)--always apposed
    • - the 2 strands are cytosine (C) and guanine (G)--always opposed
  18. RNA: ribonucleic acid
    • -single stranded
    • -has sugar ribose (R) and uridine (U)
    • -used as actual template for protein synthesis (or translation)
    • -no constraint for A's, U's, C's and G's to be equal
  19. Lipids:
    • -span membrane of every cell
    • -cell membrane has polar surfaces but non polar internal structure
    • -the non-polar barrier keeps molecules that are out, outside and molecules in, inside
  20. Sterols:
    -type of lipid useful as targets for antibiotic therapy of fungi

    • -amimal cells contain cholesterols
    • -fungi cells contain ergosterols