Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves
2011-04-05 11:57:03
Brain anatomy physiology

Terms and vocab for BI232
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  1. Tuberal Area
    • Location: between theInfundibulum of Pituitary gland and the Mamiilary body
    • Function: contains nuclei involved with the control of the Pituitary gland fuction
  2. ADH
    • Name: AntiDiuretic Hormones/Vasopressin
    • Location: produced by the Supraoptic Nucleus in the Hypothalamus
    • Function: Restrictes water loss at the kidneys
  3. OXT
    • Name: Oxytocin
    • Location: Paraventricular Nucleus in the Hypothalamus
    • Function: stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the uterus, mammary glands and the prostate gland.
  4. Association fibers
    • Purpose: interconnect areas of neural cortex within a single cerebral hemisphere
    • Two types:
    • Arcuate fibers-pass from one gyrus to another
    • Longitudinal Fasciculi-connect Frontal Lobe to other Lobes of the same hemisphere.
  5. Commissural fibers
    • Purpose: interconnect and allow communication between right and left hemispheres
    • (exp) corpus callosum
  6. Projection fibers
    • Purpose: link the cerebral cortex to the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
    • Types:
    • ascending fibers
    • descending fibers
    • internal capsule-collection of Projection fibers
  7. Shawn Houston
    • Who: A FNG at Columbia Pool even after almost a year of working
    • Why: Who knows.
  8. Basal Nuclei
    • Name: same as "Basal Ganglia" but term ganglia refers to structures in PNS so not a correct anatomy term
    • Function: subconscience control of skeletal muscle tone and the coordination of learned movements.
    • Contents:
    • Caudate nucleus
    • Lentiform nucleus:
    • -contains
    • -globus pallidus
    • -putamen
    • Features:
    • Corpus striatum(striated body)
  9. Ataxia
    Disturbance in muscular coordination
  10. ´╗┐Circadian Rhythms
    24-hour day--night cycle coordinared by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamas
  11. Central sulcus
    • Purpose:seperates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobes
    • pg481
  12. Lateral sulcus
    • Purpose: serperates the frontal lobe and parietal lobes from the temperal lobe
    • pg481
  13. Precentral gyrus
    • Purpose: contains the primary motor cortex of the brain
    • Details: contains Pyramidal cells (Large neurons that have a pyramidal shape) that make specific muscle contract when activated from the somatic motor association area
    • pg 484
    • im gay
  14. Postcentral gyrus
    Purpose: contains the primary sensory cortex of the brain (pg 484)
  15. Limbic lobe
    • Contents: three gyri
    • -Cingulate gyrus
    • -Parahippocampal gyrus
    • -Dentate gyrus
    • pg479
  16. Amygdaloid body
    • Purpose: acts as an interface between the limbic system and the cerebrum and various sensory systems
    • also plays a role in:
    • -control of the "fight or flight" response
    • - regulation of heart beat
    • -linking emotions with specific memories
    • pg479
  17. Hippocampus
    • Purpose: important for leaning ,storage and retrival of new long term memories.
    • Detail: named in latin "hippocampus" due to structure somewhat reembling a sea horse
    • pg 479
  18. Eight Functions of the Hypothalamus
    • 1. Subconscious control of skeletal muscle contractions
    • 2. The control of autonomic functions
    • 3.The coordination of activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
    • 4. secretion of two hormones(oxt,adh)
    • 5.Production of emotions and behavioral drives
    • 6.Coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions
    • 7. The regulation of body temperture
    • 8. The control of circadian rhythms
  19. Mammillary body
    • Name: mamilla, little breasts
    • Purpose:
    • process sensory information,including the olfactory sensations pg476
    • Contain motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with wating pg476
  20. Somatic sensory association area
    Purpose: Monitors activity in the primary sensory cortex